Abydos King list

The Abydos King List, also called the Abydos Table is a list with the names of seventy-six pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. It is still in place, on a wall of the Mortuary Temple of Seti I at Abydos in Egypt .

The king list was part of a ritual where the spirits of the ancestors were invoked. The names on the list was revered or celebrated "ancestors" of Seti I, and was not meant to be a historically correct chronological list. It shows only those pharaohs that were deemed worthy. Queen Hatshepsut and the Amarna period pharaohs were not included, nor any from the Second Intermediate Period.

Abydos Canon king list

The list is found in Seti I's temple on the right wall of the passage coming from the second Hypostyle Hall, and is referred to as the Gallery of Lists. Seti I is on the left wearing the blue crown, holding a censor in one hand and gesturing towards the right with the other. In front of him, prince Ramesses is shown holding a papyrus to read from with an accompanying text before him:

Reciting praises by the hereditary prince; the eldest, of his body, his beloved (son), Ramesses, justified, true of voice.

The text, which runs in six vertical columns above Ramesses, is the speech given by Seti I:

Words spoken by King Menmaatra. Bringing the god to his food offering, the making of offerings for the kings of Upper and Lower Egypt. Greetings to thee, Ptah Sokar, who is South-of-His Wall! Come, that I may make for thee these (things) which Horus made for his father Osiris.

The first fifty-six names shows an orderly progression of legitime rulers of Memphis. The kings who are not included are those whose rule over the Two Lands is questioned or who had some measure of political/religious bias towards them, for example, not ruling from Memphis.

Abydos Canon king list drawing

Content of the list

The list consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches on each row. The upper two rows contain names of the ancestral kings, while the third row repeats Seti I's throne- and birth-names. In all, seventy-six kings are mentioned. The hieroglyphics are read from left to right, the upper row is read before the lower. The cartouches of the kings are preceded by the words n nisu, which translates as "To king.....". The third row with Seti's names is preceded by "By the gift of.....".

Upper row

From left to right
#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
1 Cartouche of Meni
mn:n-i
Meni
mnj
Narmer
2 Cartouche of Teti
t:t-i
Teti
ttj
Aha
3 Cartouche of Ateti
i-t-ti
Ateti
jttj
Djer
4 Cartouche of Ita
i-t-A
Ita
jtA
Djet
5 Cartouche of Sepati
N24-N24
Sepati
spAtj
Den
6 Cartouche of Meribiap
U7-r:N42*p
Meribiap
mri-biA-p
Adjib
7 Cartouche of Semsu
A23D
Semsu
smsw
Semerkhet
8 Cartouche of Qebeh
q-b-H
Qebeh
qbH
Qaa
9 Cartouche of Bedjau
b-DA-w-P11
Bedjau
bDaw
Hotepsekhemwy
10 Cartouche of Kakau
kA-D52:D52:D52
Kakau
kA-kAw
Nebra
11 Cartouche of Banetjer
W10A*E11-nTr:n
Banetjer
bA-nTr
Ninetjer
12 Cartouche of Wadjnes
wAD-n-s
Wadjnes
wADns
Wadjenes
13 Cartouche of Senedj
s-n:d-i
Senedj
sndj
Senedj
14 Cartouche of Djadjay
DA-DA-D1-i-i
Djadjay
DA-DA-y
Khasekhemwy
15 Cartouche of Nebka
nb-kA-Z1
Nebka
nb-kA
Nebka
16 Cartouche of Djosersa
Dsr-V17
Djosersa
Dsr-sA
Djoser
17 Cartouche of Teti
t:t-i
Teti
ttj
Sekhemkhet
18 Cartouche of Sedjes
z:D-s
Sedjes
sDs
Hudjefa II
19 Cartouche of Neferkara
ra:nfr-kA
Neferkara
nfr-kA-ra
Neferkara
20 Cartouche of Sneferu
s-nfr-w
Sneferu
s-nfr-w
Sneferu
21 Cartouche of Khufu
x:f-w
Khufu
xfw
Khufu
22 Cartouche of Djedefra
ra-Dd-f
Djedefra
Dd-f-ra
Radjedef
23 Cartouche of Khafra
ra-xa-a:f
Khafra
xa-f-ra
Khafra
24 Cartouche of Menkaura
ra-mn:n-kA:Z2
Menkaura
mn-kAw-ra
Menkaura
25 Cartouche of Shepseskaf
A51-z:z-kA:f
Shepseskaf
Sps-s-kA-f
Shepseskaf
26 Cartouche of Userkaf
wsr-s-kA-f
Userkaf
wsr-kA-f
Userkaf
27 Cartouche of Sahura
ra-sAH-w
Sahura
sAHw-ra
Sahura
28 Cartouche of Kakai
kA-kA-i
Kakai
kA-kA-j
Neferirkara I Kakai
29 Cartouche of Neferefra
ra-nfr-f
Neferefra
nfr.f-ra
Neferefra Isi
30 Cartouche of Niuserra
ra-n-wsr*s:r
Niuserra
nj-wsr-ra
Niuserra Ini
31 Cartouche of Menkauhor
G5-mn:n-kA*kA:kA
Menkauhor
mn-kAw-Hr
Menkauhor Kaiu
32 Cartouche of Djedkara
ra-Dd-kA
Djedkara
Dd-kA-ra
Djedkara Isesi
33 Cartouche of Unas
wn:n-i*s
Unas
wnjs
Unas
34 Cartouche of Teti
t:t-i
Teti
ttj
Teti
35 Cartouche of Userkara
ra-wsr*s-kA
Userkara
wsr-kA-ra
Userkara
36 Cartouche of Meryra
ra-U7\:r-i-i
Meryra
mry-ra
Pepi I
37 Cartouche of Merenra
ra:U7-r:n
Merenra
mr-n-ra
Nemtiemsaf I
38 Cartouche of Neferkara
ra-nfr-kA
Neferkara
nfr-kA-ra
Pepi II

Lower row

From left to right
#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
39 Cartouche of Merenra Emsaf
ra-U7:n-wSA-m-V16:f
Merenra Emsaf
mr-n-ra sA-m-sA-f
Nemtiemsaf II
40 Cartouche of Netjerkara
ra-nTr-kA
Netjerkara
nTr-kA-ra
Netjerikara
41 Cartouche of Menkara
ra-mn:n-kA
Menkara
mn-kA-ra
Menkara
42 Cartouche of Neferkara
ra-nfr-kA
Neferkara
nfr-kA-ra
Neferkara II
43 Cartouche of Neferkara Neby
ra-nfr-kA-nb-b-i-i
Neferkara Neby
nfr-kA-ra nb-jj
Neferkara Neby
44 Cartouche of Djedkara Shemay
ra-Dd-kA-U4-A33
Djedkara Shemay
Dd-kA-ra-SmAj
Djedkara Shemai
45 Cartouche of Neferkara Khendu
ra-nfr-kA-x:n:d-w-D56
Neferkara Khendu
nfr-kA-ra xndw
Neferkara Khendu
46 Cartouche of Merenhor
G5-U7:r:n
Merenhor
mr-n-Hr
Merenhor
47 Cartouche of Sneferka
z-nfr-kA
Sneferka
s-nfr-kA
Neferkamin I
48 Cartouche of Nikara
ra-n-kA
Nikara
nj-kA-ra
Nikara
49 Cartouche of Neferkara Tereru
ra-nfr-kA:t-r:r:rw
Neferkara Tereru
nfr-kA-ra tr-r-rw
Neferkara Tereru
50 Cartouche of Neferkahor
G5-nfr-kA
Neferkahor
nfr-kA-Hr
Neferkahor
51 Cartouche of Neferkara Pepiseneb
ra-nfr-kA-p:p-i-i-s:n-b
Neferkara Pepiseneb
nfr-kA-ra pj-pj-s-n-bj
Neferkara Pepiseneb
52 Cartouche of Neferkamin Anu
z:nfr*kA-a:n-nw*w
Neferkamin Anu
s-nfr-kA-a-n-nw-w
Neferkamin Anu
53 Cartouche of Qakara
ra-A28-kA:Z2
Qakara
qA-kAw-ra
Qakara Ibi
54 Cartouche of Neferkaura
ra-nfr-kA:Z2
Neferkaura
nfr-kAw-ra
Neferkaura
55 Cartouche of Neferkauhor
G5-nfr-kA:Z2
Neferkauhor
nfr-kAw-hr
Neferkauhor
56 Cartouche of Neferirkara
ra-nfr-ir-kA
Neferirkara
nfr-jr-kA-ra
Neferirkara II
57 Cartouche of Nebhapetra
ra:nb-P8
Nebhapetra
nb-HApt-ra
Mentuhotep II
58 Cartouche of Sankhkara
ra-s-anx-kA
Sankhkara
s-anx-kA-ra
Mentuhotep III
59 Cartouche of Sehotepibra
ra-s-Htp:t*p-ib
Sehotepibra
s-Htp-ib-ra
Amenemhat I
60 Cartouche of Kheperkara
ra-xpr-kA
Kheperkara
xpr-kA-ra
Senusret I
61 Cartouche of Nebukaura
ra:nbw-kA*kA:kA
Nebukaura
nbw-kAw-ra
Amenemhat II
62 Cartouche of Khakheperra
ra-xa-xpr
Khakheperra
xa-xpr-ra
Senusret II
63 Cartouche of Khakaura
ra-xa-kA*kA:kA
Khakaura
xa-kAw-ra
Senusret III
64 Cartouche of Nimaatra
Nimaatra
nj-mAat-ra
Amenemhat III
65 Cartouche of Maakherura
Maakherura
mAat-xrw-ra
Amenemhat IV
66 Cartouche of Nebpehtyra
Nebpehtyra
nb-pHtj-ra
Ahmose I
67 Cartouche of Djoserkara
Djoserkara
Dsr-kA-ra
Amenhotep I
68 Cartouche of Aakheperkara
Aakheperkara
aA-xpr-kA-ra
Thutmose I
69 Cartouche of Aakheperenra
Aakheperenra
aA-xpr-n-ra
Thutmose II
70 Cartouche of Menkheperra
Menkheperra
mn-xpr-ra
Thutmose III
71 Cartouche of Aakheperura
Aakheperura
aA-xprw-ra
Amenhotep II
72 Cartouche of Menkheperura
Menkheperura
mn-xprw-ra
Thutmose IV
73 Cartouche of Nebmaatra
Nebmaatra
nb-mAat-ra
Amenhotep III
74 Cartouche of Djoserkheperura setepenra
Djoserkheperura setepenra
Dsr-xprw stp-n-ra
Horemheb
75 Cartouche of Menpehtyra
Menpehtyra
mn-pHtj-ra
Ramesses I
76 Cartouche of Menmaatra
Menmaatra
mn-mAat-ra
Seti I

Illustrations



Abydos King list 1869 (Source: Mariette 1869, plate 43)
Mariette 1869

Abydos, I, plate 43
Size: 2000x955 (285 kb)

Abydos king list 1869 - press ENTER for full image
Dümichen 1869

Historische Inschriften, II, plate XLV
Size: 2000x1591 (555 kB)

Green indicates the location of the king list. Enter to view full image.
Temple map

King list marked in green
Size: 1887x2703 (70 kB)

Bibliography

  • : Abydos description des fouilles, I, Plate 43 (Paris 1869)
  • : Historische inschriften altägyptischer Denkmäler, Vol II, plate XLV (Leipzig 1869)
  • : Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 176-179, §77 (Oxford 1975)
  • : The Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings, VI, 25 (229)–(230)
  • : The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos, 2 Volumes. (London 1933)
  • : Pharaonic King Lists, Annals and Day Books. (Mississauga 1986)
  • 360 degree view of the list, courtesy of 360cities.net


 

With 2335 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
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