Abydos King list

The Abydos King List, also called the Abydos Table is a list with the names of seventy-six pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. It is still in place, on a wall of the Mortuary Temple of Seti I at Abydos in Egypt .

The king list was part of a ritual where the spirits of the ancestors were invoked. The names on the list was revered or celebrated "ancestors" of Seti I, and was not meant to be a historically correct chronological list. It shows only those pharaohs that were deemed worthy. Queen Hatshepsut and the Amarna period pharaohs were not included, nor any from the Second Intermediate Period.

Abydos Canon king list

Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

The list is found in Seti I's temple on the right wall of the passage coming from the second Hypostyle Hall, and is referred to as the Gallery of Lists. Seti I is on the left wearing the blue crown, holding a censor in one hand and gesturing towards the right with the other. In front of him, prince Ramesses is shown holding a papyrus to read from with an accompanying text before him:

Reciting praises by the hereditary prince; the eldest, of his body, his beloved (son), Ramesses, justified, true of voice.

The text, which runs in six vertical columns above Ramesses, is the speech given by Seti I:

Words spoken by King Menmaatra. Bringing the god to his food offering, the making of offerings for the kings of Upper and Lower Egypt. Greetings to thee, Ptah Sokar, who is South-of-His Wall! Come, that I may make for thee these (things) which Horus made for his father Osiris.

The first fifty-six names shows an orderly progression of legitime rulers of Memphis. The kings who are not included are those whose rule over the Two Lands is questioned or who had some measure of political/religious bias towards them, for example, not ruling from Memphis.

Abydos Canon king list drawing

Content of the list

The list consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches on each row. The upper two rows contain names of the ancestral kings, while the third row repeats Seti I's throne- and birth-names. In all, seventy-six kings are mentioned. The hieroglyphics are read from left to right, the upper row is read before the lower. The cartouches of the kings are preceded by the words n nisu, which translates as "To king.....". The third row with Seti's names is preceded by "By the gift of.....".

Upper row

From left to right
#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
1 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 1 - Narmer (Meni)
mn:n-i
Meni
mni
Narmer
2 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 2 - Aha (Teti)
t:t-i
Teti
tti
Aha
3 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 3 - Djer (Ateti)
i-t-ti
Ateti
itti
Djer
4 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 4 - Djet (Ita)
i-t-A
Ita
itꜢ
Djet
5 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 5 - Den (Sepati)
N24-N24
Sepati
spꜢti
Den
6 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 6 - Adjib (Meribiap)
U7-r:N42*p
Meribiap
mri-biꜢ-p
Adjib
7 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 7 - Semerkhet (Semsu)
A23D
Semsu
smsw
Semerkhet
8 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 8 - Qaa (Qebeh)
q-b-H
Qebeh
ḳbḥ
Qaa
9 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 9 - Hotepsekhemwy (Bedjau)
b-DA-w-P11
Bedjau
bḏꜤw
Hotepsekhemwy
10 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 10 - Nebra (Kakau)
kA-D52:D52:D52
Kakau
kꜢ-kꜢw
Nebra
11 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 11 - Ninetjer (Banetjer)
W10A*E11-nTr:n
Banetjer
bꜢ-nṯr
Ninetjer
12 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 12 - Wadjenes (Wadjnes)
wAD-n-s
Wadjnes
wꜢḏns
Wadjenes
13 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 13 - Senedj (Senedj)
s-n:d-i
Senedj
sndi
Senedj
14 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 14 - Khasekhemwy (Djadjay)
DA-DA-D1-i-i
Djadjay
ḏꜢ-ḏꜢ-y
Khasekhemwy
15 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 15 - Nebka (Nebka)
nb-kA-Z1
Nebka
nb-kꜢ
Nebka
16 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 16 - Djoser (Djosersa)
Dsr-V17
Djosersa
ḏsr-sꜢ
Djoser
17 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 17 - Sekhemkhet (Teti)
t:t-i
Teti
tti
Sekhemkhet
18 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 18 - Hudjefa II (Sedjes)
z:D-s
Sedjes
sḏs
Hudjefa II
19 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 19 - Neferkara (Neferkara)
ra:nfr-kA
Neferkara
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Neferkara
20 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 20 - Sneferu (Sneferu)
s-nfr-w
Sneferu
s-nfr-w
Sneferu
21 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 21 - Khufu (Khufu)
x:f-w
Khufu
ḫfw
Khufu
22 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 22 - Radjedef (Djedefra)
ra-Dd-f
Djedefra
ḏd-f-rꜤ
Radjedef
23 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 23 - Khafra (Khafra)
ra-xa-a:f
Khafra
ḫꜤ-f-rꜤ
Khafra
24 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 24 - Menkaura (Menkaura)
ra-mn:n-kA:Z2
Menkaura
mn-kꜢw-rꜤ
Menkaura
25 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 25 - Shepseskaf (Shepseskaf)
A51-z:z-kA:f
Shepseskaf
&scꜤron;ps-s-kꜢ-f
Shepseskaf
26 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 26 - Userkaf (Userkaf)
wsr-s-kA-f
Userkaf
wsr-kꜢ-f
Userkaf
27 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 27 - Sahura (Sahura)
ra-sAH-w
Sahura
sꜢḥw-rꜤ
Sahura
28 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 28 - Neferirkara I Kakai (Kakai)
kA-kA-i
Kakai
kꜢ-kꜢ-i
Neferirkara I Kakai
29 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 29 - Neferefra Isi (Neferefra)
ra-nfr-f
Neferefra
nfr.f-rꜤ
Neferefra Isi
30 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 30 - Niuserra Ini (Niuserra)
ra-n-wsr*s:r
Niuserra
ni-wsr-rꜤ
Niuserra Ini
31 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 31 - Menkauhor Kaiu (Menkauhor)
G5-mn:n-kA*kA:kA
Menkauhor
mn-kꜢw-ḥr
Menkauhor Kaiu
32 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 32 - Djedkara Isesi (Djedkara)
ra-Dd-kA
Djedkara
ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ
Djedkara Isesi
33 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 33 - Unas (Unas)
wn:n-i*s
Unas
wnis
Unas
34 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 34 - Teti (Teti)
t:t-i
Teti
tti
Teti
35 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 35 - Userkara (Userkara)
ra-wsr*s-kA
Userkara
wsr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Userkara
36 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 36 - Pepi I (Meryra)
ra-U7\:r-i-i
Meryra
mry-rꜤ
Pepi I
37 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 37 - Nemtiemsaf I (Merenra)
ra:U7-r:n
Merenra
mr-n-rꜤ
Nemtiemsaf I
38 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 38 - Pepi II (Neferkara)
ra-nfr-kA
Neferkara
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Pepi II

Lower row

From left to right
#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
39 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 39 - Nemtiemsaf II (Merenra Emsaf)
ra-U7:n-wSA-m-V16:f
Merenra Emsaf
mr.n-rꜤ sꜢ-m-sꜢ.f
Nemtiemsaf II
40 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 40 - Netjerikara (Netjerkara)
ra-nTr-kA
Netjerkara
nṯri-kꜢ-rꜤ
Netjerikara
41 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 41 - Menkara (Menkara)
ra-mn:n-kA
Menkara
mn-kꜢ-rꜤ
Menkara
42 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 42 - Neferkara II (Neferkara)
ra-nfr-kA
Neferkara
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Neferkara II
43 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 43 - Neferkara Neby (Neferkara Neby)
ra-nfr-kA-nb-b-i-i
Neferkara Neby
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ nb-y
Neferkara Neby
44 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 44 - Djedkara Shemai (Djedkara Shemay)
ra-Dd-kA-U4-A33
Djedkara Shemay
ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ-šmꜤi
Djedkara Shemai
45 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 45 - Neferkara Khendu (Neferkara Khendu)
ra-nfr-kA-x:n:d-w-D56
Neferkara Khendu
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ ḫndw
Neferkara Khendu
46 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 46 - Merenhor (Merenhor)
G5-U7:r:n
Merenhor
mr-n-ḥr
Merenhor
47 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 47 - Neferkamin I (Sneferka)
z-nfr-kA
Sneferka
s-nfr-kꜢ
Neferkamin I
48 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 48 - Nikara (Nikara)
ra-n-kA
Nikara
ni-kꜢ-rꜤ
Nikara
49 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 49 - Neferkara Tereru (Neferkara Tereru)
ra-nfr-kA:t-r:r:rw
Neferkara Tereru
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ tr-r-rw
Neferkara Tereru
50 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 50 - Neferkahor (Neferkahor)
G5-nfr-kA
Neferkahor
nfr-kꜢ-ḥr
Neferkahor
51 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 51 - Neferkara Pepiseneb (Neferkara Pepiseneb)
ra-nfr-kA-p:p-i-i-s:n-b
Neferkara Pepiseneb
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ pi-pi-snb
Neferkara Pepiseneb
52 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 52 - Neferkamin Anu (Neferkamin Anu)
z:nfr*kA-a:n-nw*w
Neferkamin Anu
s-nfr-kꜢ-Ꜥnw
Neferkamin Anu
53 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 53 - Qakara Ibi (Qakara)
ra-A28-kA:Z2
Qakara
ḳꜢ-kꜢw-rꜤ
Qakara Ibi
54 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 54 - Neferkaura (Neferkaura)
ra-nfr-kA:Z2
Neferkaura
nfr-kꜢw-rꜤ
Neferkaura
55 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 55 - Neferkauhor (Neferkauhor)
G5-nfr-kA:Z2
Neferkauhor
nfr-kꜢw-ḥr
Neferkauhor
56 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 56 - Neferirkara II (Neferirkara)
ra-nfr-ir-kA
Neferirkara
nfr-ir-kꜢ-rꜤ
Neferirkara II
57 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 57 - Mentuhotep II (Nebhapetra)
ra:nb-P8
Nebhapetra
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ
Mentuhotep II
58 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 58 - Mentuhotep III (Sankhkara)
ra-s-anx-kA
Sankhkara
s-Ꜥnḫ-kꜢ-rꜤ
Mentuhotep III
59 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 59 - Amenemhat I (Sehotepibra)
ra-s-Htp:t*p-ib
Sehotepibra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
Amenemhat I
60 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 60 - Senusret I (Kheperkara)
ra-xpr-kA
Kheperkara
ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Senusret I
61 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 61 - Amenemhat II (Nebukaura)
ra:nbw-kA*kA:kA
Nebukaura
nbw-kꜢw-rꜤ
Amenemhat II
62 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 62 - Senusret II (Khakheperra)
ra-xa-xpr
Khakheperra
ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤ
Senusret II
63 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 63 - Senusret III (Khakaura)
ra-xa-kA*kA:kA
Khakaura
ḫꜤ-kꜢw-rꜤ
Senusret III
64 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 64 - Amenemhat III (Nimaatra)
Nimaatra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Amenemhat III
65 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 65 - Amenemhat IV (Maakherura)
Maakherura
mꜢꜤt-ḫrw-rꜤ
Amenemhat IV
66 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 66 - Ahmose I (Nebpehtyra)
Nebpehtyra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
Ahmose I
67 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 67 - Amenhotep I (Djoserkara)
Djoserkara
ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Amenhotep I
68 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 68 - Thutmose I (Aakheperkara)
Aakheperkara
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Thutmose I
69 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 69 - Thutmose II (Aakheperenra)
Aakheperenra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-n-rꜤ
Thutmose II
70 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 70 - Thutmose III (Menkheperra)
Menkheperra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ
Thutmose III
71 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 71 - Amenhotep II (Aakheperura)
Aakheperura
ꜤꜢ-ḫprw-rꜤ
Amenhotep II
72 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 72 - Thutmose IV (Menkheperura)
Menkheperura
mn-ḫprw-rꜤ
Thutmose IV
73 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 73 - Amenhotep III (Nebmaatra)
Nebmaatra
nb-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Amenhotep III
74 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 74 - Horemheb (Djoserkheperura setepenra)
Djoserkheperura setepenra
ḏsr-ḫprw stp.n-rꜤ
Horemheb
75 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 75 - Ramesses I (Menpehtyra)
Menpehtyra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Ramesses I
76 Abydos king list: cartouche no. 76 - Seti I (Menmaatra)
Menmaatra
mn-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Seti I

Illustrations



Abydos King list 1869 (Source: Mariette 1869, plate 43)
Mariette 1869

Abydos, I, plate 43
Size: 2000x955 (285 kb)

Abydos king list 1869 - press ENTER for full image
Dümichen 1869

Historische Inschriften, II, plate XLV
Size: 2000x1591 (555 kB)

Green indicates the location of the king list. Enter to view full image.
Temple map

King list marked in green
Size: 1887x2703 (70 kB)

Bibliography

  • : Abydos description des fouilles, I, Plate 43 (Paris 1869)
  • : Historische inschriften altägyptischer Denkmäler, Vol II, plate XLV (Leipzig 1869)
  • : Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 176-179, §77 (Oxford 1975)
  • : The Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings, VI, 25 (229)–(230)
  • : The Cenotaph of Seti I at Abydos, 2 Volumes. (London 1933)
  • : Pharaonic King Lists, Annals and Day Books. (Mississauga 1986)
  • 360 degree view of the list, courtesy of 360cities.net


 

With 2336 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
© 2011-2019 by Peter Lundström — All Rights Reserved — V.2019-07-08
Disclaimer: The content should be accurate, but errors and omissions are possible. All information is provided "as is". Always check the sources.