Pharaoh Hotepsekhemwy united the kingdom and founded the Second Dynasty. The records from the time are very scarce, and many theories about the actual chronology have been postualeted by various Egyptologists. The Turin papyrus contain the names of nine kings, the same number Africanus and Eusebius give for Manetho's second dynasty. The Abydos king list only mention six, while the Saqqara list gives eight. During the later parts of the reign of Ninetjer, he decided to divide the kingdom between two of his sons. After his death there were presumably some who did not like the new division, and it is not far-fetched to imagine different factions struggling for power, or, even setting up their own ruler. The knowledge about the later parts of the dynasty is murky at best, as is reflected in the various king lists.
|#||Pharaoh||Throne name||Also known as||Reign*|
|8||Sneferka||Sekanefer, Neferseka, Seneferka|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.