The Fourth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Dates: 2543-2436 BC.
Capital: Memphis

The line of succession of the first six pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty is well documented from contemporary and archeological records, but there are some discrepancies between the various New Kingdom king lists.

Djedefhor was a son of Khufu and it is very unlikely that he ever ruled as pharaoh.
Baefra was allegedly another son of Khufu.
Djedefptah, was yet another son of Khufu, whose name might have been hellenized into Thamphthis, who, according to Africanus, was the last ruler of the dynasty. There is no archeological evidence of this however.
These three princes might have been misstakenly glorified as pharaohs by the time of the New Kingdom, which would explain why they were included on the king lists.
There is the possibilty that rivals for the throne had all traces of their rule eradicated, but there are no proof either way.

The Fourth Dynasty
#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
1 Sneferu Snefru, Snofru 2543–2510
2 Khufu Cheops 2509–2483
3 Radjedef Djedefra, Djedefre 2482–2475
4 Khafra Khafre, Chephren, Khefren 2472–2448
5 Menkaura Menkaure, Mykerinos, Mycerinus 2447–2442
6 Shepseskaf 2441–2436

Unplaced kings



#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
Baufra Baefra, Baufre, Baka, Bicheris, Bikka 2474–2473
Thamphthis Djedefptah, Ptahdjedef
Hordjedef Djedefhor
 
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Kinglists
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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