The Ninth Dynasty ruled Lower Egypt from Herakleopolis Magna (Nen-nesut) and came into conflict with the Theban Eleventh Dynasty which ruled Upper Egypt and ultimately lost. The rulers of this dynasty are extremely obscure, not even their names are certain. It is quite possible, even likely, that the redactors of the epitome of Manetho erroneously duplicated this dynasty into the Tenth.
|#||Pharaoh||Throne name||Also known as||Reign*|
|1||Meribra Khety I||Meribre Khety I|
|2||Neferkara III||Neferkare III|
|3||Wahkara Khety II||Wahkare Khety II|
|5||Neferkara Khety III||Neferkare Khety I|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.