The Tenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

There is almost no archaeological evidence as to the rulers, which makes it all but impossible to place any kings with confidence. The Turin king list details 18 kings for dynasties 9-10 but curiously does not separate them into two dynasties. It is very likely that this dynasty is a duplicate of the Ninth due to a corrupted or misunderstood epitome of Manetho, and actually belonged to the Ninth Dynasty.

The Tenth Dynasty
#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
1 Nebkaura Khety IV Nebkaure Khety IV, Khety V between 2160 and 2130
2 Merikara Merykare c. 2075–2040

Unplaced kings

#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
Sekhemkara I Sekhemkare I
Wadjkara Wadjkare
End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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