The Eleventh Dynasty only controlled Upper Egypt from its captial at Thebes, while Dynasty X ruled Lower Egypt from Heracleopolis. This brought them into a long conflict which ended when Mentuhotep II defeated the Herkleopolitians and re-united the Two Lands, starting the Middle Kingdom.
|#||Pharaoh||Throne name||Also known as||Reign*|
|2||Intef I||Antef I, Anjotef I, Inyotef I|
|3||Intef II||Antef II, Anjotef II, Inyotef II||2066–2017|
|4||Intef III||Antef III, Anjotef III, Inyotef III||2016–2009|
|5||Mentuhotep II||Nebhapetra||Montuhotep II||2009–1959|
|6||Mentuhotep III||Seankhra||Montuhotep III||1958–1947|
|7||Mentuhotep IV||Nebtawyra||Montuhotep IV||1947–1940|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.