The Twelfth Dynasty brought the Middle Kingdom to new heights. The pharaohs started keeping well-trained standing armies, and had fortifications built. These armies were also used in foreign campaigns, but mostly there was peace and economic prosperity that hadn't existed since the Old Kingdom.
|#||Pharaoh||Throne name||Also known as||Reign*|
|1||Amenemhat I||Sehotepibra||Amenemhet I||1939–1910|
|2||Senusret I||Kheperkara||Senusret I, Senwosret I||1920–1875|
|3||Amenemhat II||Nubkaura||Amenemhet II||1878–1843|
|4||Senusret II||Khakheperra||Senusret II, Senwosret II||1845–1837|
|5||Senusret III||Khakhaura||Senusret III, Senwosret III, Sesostris||1837–1819|
|6||Amenemhat III||Nimaatra||Amenemhet III||1818–1773|
|7||Amenemhat IV||Maakherura||Amenemhet IV||1772–1764|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.