The Twelfth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Dates: 1939-1760 BC.
Capital: Itj-tawy

The Twelfth Dynasty brought the Middle Kingdom to new heights. The pharaohs started keeping well-trained standing armies, and had fortifications built. These armies were also used in foreign campaigns, but mostly there was peace and economic prosperity that hadn't existed since the Old Kingdom.

The Twelfth Dynasty
#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
1 Amenemhat I Sehotepibra Amenemhet I 1939–1910
2 Senusret I Kheperkara Senusret I, Senwosret I 1920–1875
3 Amenemhat II Nubkaura Amenemhet II 1878–1843
4 Senusret II Khakheperra Senusret II, Senwosret II 1845–1837
5 Senusret III Khakhaura Senusret III, Senwosret III, Sesostris 1837–1819
6 Amenemhat III Nimaatra Amenemhet III 1818–1773
7 Amenemhat IV Maakherura Amenemhet IV 1772–1764
8 Neferusobek Sobekkara Sobekneferu 1763–1760
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Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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