The Nineteenth Dynasty lasted for around 110 years, 66 of which were ruled by Ramesses II. The dynasty declined as internal fighting between the heirs of Ramesses II's successor, Merenptah, increased. Ramesses II built more monuments than any other pharaoh, and was not afraid to even usurp older ones.
|#||Pharaoh||Throne name||Also known as||Reign*|
|1||Ramesses I||Menpehtyra||Ramses I||1292–1290|
|2||Seti I||Menmaatra||Sethos I||1290–1279|
|3||Ramesses II||Usermaatra setepenra||Rameses II, Ramses II||1279–1213|
|5||Seti II||Userkheperura||Sethos II||1203–1200|
|6||Amenmesse||Menmira setepenra||Amenmesses, Amenmose||1203–1197|
|7||Siptah||Sekhaenra meryamun||Merenptah Siptah||1197–1191|
|8||Tausret||Satra meryamun||Tawosret, Twosret||1191–1190|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.