The Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Dates: 1292-1190 BC.
Capital: Thebes/Memphis/Pi-Ramesse

The Nineteenth Dynasty lasted for around 110 years, 66 of which were ruled by Ramesses II. The dynasty declined as internal fighting between the heirs of Ramesses II's successor, Merenptah, increased. Ramesses II built more monuments than any other pharaoh, and was not afraid to even usurp older ones.

The Nineteenth Dynasty
#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
1 Ramesses I Menpehtyra Ramses I 1292–1290
2 Seti I Menmaatra Sethos I 1290–1279
3 Ramesses II Usermaatra setepenra Rameses II, Ramses II 1279–1213
4 Merenptah Baenra merynetjeru Merneptah 1213–1203
5 Seti II Userkheperura Sethos II 1203–1200
6 Amenmesse Menmira setepenra Amenmesses, Amenmose 1203–1197
7 Siptah Sekhaenra meryamun Merenptah Siptah 1197–1191
8 Tausret Satra meryamun Tawosret, Twosret 1191–1190
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Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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