The Eighteenth Dynasty ushered in the New Kingdom by defeating and expulsing the Hyksos. The Two Lands were finally united again, and successive pharaohs expanded the empire through force and diplomacy. The wealth gained led to an era of prosperity and massive building projects as art and architecture flourished.
Thutmose III was the greatest military pharaoh ever, his reign is seen as a high point of the dynasty. Many of the pharaohs of the dynasty were buried in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. Several diplomatic marriages are known to have been arranged.
There was however also the Amarna Period, during which monotheism was forced upon the kingdom, under Pharaoh Akhenaton. His successors had his name systematically erased from history, which makes it is very difficult to establish the chronological sequence of reigns, as most of the evidence of his reign was destroyed some 2300 years ago.
|#||Pharaoh||Throne name||Also known as||Reign*|
|1||Ahmose I||Nebpehtyra||Amasis, Amosis||1550–1525|
|2||Amenhotep I||Djoserkara||Amenophis I||1541–1520|
|3||Thutmose I||Aakheperkara||Tuthmosis I, Thutmosis I||1520–1492|
|4||Thutmose II||Aakheperenra||Tuthmosis II, Thutmosis II||1492–1479|
|6||Thutmose III||Menkheperra||Tuthmosis III, Thutmosis III||1479–1425|
|7||Amenhotep II||Aakheperura||Amenophis II||1425–1400|
|8||Thutmose IV||Menkheperura||Tuthmosis IV, Thutmosis IV||1400–1390|
|9||Amenhotep III||Nebmaatra||Amenophis III||1390–1352|
|10||Amenhotep IV||Neferkheperura waenra||Akhenaten, Akhenaton, Echnaton, Amenophis IV||1352–1334|
|12||Smenkhkara||Ankhkheperura||Smenkhare, Smenkare||c. 1332|
|13||Tutankhamun||Nebkheperura||Tutankhamon, King Tut, Tutankhamen, Tutankhaton||1332–1323|
|15||Horemheb||Djeserkheperura setepenra||Horemhab, Haremhab||1320–1292|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.