The Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Dates: 1550-1292 BC.
Capital: Thebes/Akhetaten

The Eighteenth Dynasty ushered in the New Kingdom by defeating and expulsing the Hyksos. The Two Lands were finally united again, and successive pharaohs expanded the empire through force and diplomacy. The wealth gained led to an era of prosperity and massive building projects as art and architecture flourished.

Thutmose III was the greatest military pharaoh ever, his reign is seen as a high point of the dynasty. Many of the pharaohs of the dynasty were buried in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. Several diplomatic marriages are known to have been arranged.

There was however also the Amarna Period, during which monotheism was forced upon the kingdom, under Pharaoh Akhenaton. His successors had his name systematically erased from history, which makes it is very difficult to establish the chronological sequence of reigns, as most of the evidence of his reign was destroyed some 2300 years ago.

The Eighteenth Dynasty
#PharaohThrone nameAlso known asReign*
1 Ahmose I Nebpehtyra Amasis, Amosis 1550–1525
2 Amenhotep I Djoserkara Amenophis I 1541–1520
3 Thutmose I Aakheperkara Tuthmosis I, Thutmosis I 1520–1492
4 Thutmose II Aakheperenra Tuthmosis II, Thutmosis II 1492–1479
5 Hatshepsut Maatkara Hatchepsut 1473–1458
6 Thutmose III Menkheperra Tuthmosis III, Thutmosis III 1479–1425
7 Amenhotep II Aakheperura Amenophis II 1425–1400
8 Thutmose IV Menkheperura Tuthmosis IV, Thutmosis IV 1400–1390
9 Amenhotep III Nebmaatra Amenophis III 1390–1352
10 Amenhotep IV Neferkheperura waenra Akhenaten, Akhenaton, Echnaton, Amenophis IV 1352–1334
11 Neferneferuaten Ankhkheperura Nefertiti, Meritaten 1334–1332
12 Smenkhkara Ankhkheperura Smenkhare, Smenkare c. 1332
13 Tutankhamun Nebkheperura Tutankhamon, King Tut, Tutankhamen, Tutankhaton 1332–1323
14 Ay Kheperkheperura–Irimaat Aja, Aya 1322–1320
15 Horemheb Djeserkheperura setepenra Horemhab, Haremhab 1320–1292
 
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Kinglists
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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