The Historians

The Greek historians of antiquity who visited Egypt wrote about the history of the pharaohs. The names were foreign to the Greeks, so they approximated them into Greek, and in many cases, those names are still in use today. When the hieroglyphs were decoded in the early 1800’s, historians and Egyptologists started to unravel the origins of the names of the pharaohs. While most of the works repeat what amounts to little more than myths, they also recorded the chronology of the ruling pharaohs.

Herodotus king list
c. 450 BC
Herodotus of Halicarnassus
Manetho king list
c. 250 BC
Manetho of Sebennytos
Africanus king list
c. 220 CE
Julius Sextus Africanus
Eusebius king list
c. 325 CE
Eusebius of Caesarea
Josephus king list
c. 100 CE
Titus Flavius Josephus
Contra Apion
c. 50 BC
Diodorus of Sicily
Bibliotheca Historica
St. Jerome king list
St. Jerome
c. 380 CE
Saint Jerome
Eratosthenes king list
c. 220 BC
Eratosthenes of Cyrene
Probably a forgery
Syncellus Book of Sothis
c. 800 CE
Georgios Synkellos
The Book of Sothis
The Sources
The transmission of Manetho by Africanus vs Eusebius et. al.

The main sources in chronological order

450 BCHerodotusHistories.
250 BCManethoAegyptiaca.
220 BCEratosthenesChronographiai.
50 BCDiodorusBibliotheca Historica.
100 CEJosephusContra Apion.
220 CEAfricanus – sourced from the Epitome.
325 CEEusebius – source from the Epitome.
380 CEJerome – Latin translation of Eusebius second book.
600 CEArmenian Eusebius – an Armenian translation of Eusebius
900 CESyncellus – extracts from Eusebius and Africanus.
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