The Historians

The Greek historians of antiquity who visited Egypt wrote about the history of the pharaohs. The names were foreign to the Greeks, so they approximated them into Greek, and in many cases, those names are still in use today. When the hieroglyphs were decoded in the early 1800’s, historians and Egyptologists started to unravel the origins of the names of the pharaohs.
While most of the works repeat what amounts to little more than myths, they also recorded the chronology of the ruling pharaohs.

c. 450 BCE
Manetho of Sebennytos
c. 200 BCE
Julius Sextus Africanus
c. 220 CE
Titus Flavius Josephus
c. 100 CE
Contra Apion
Diodorus of Sicily
c. 50 BCE
Bibliotheca Historica
St. Jerome
c. 380 CE
Comparing Manetho
Comparision between the king lists of Africanus and Eusebius


The main sources in chronological order

450 BCEHerodotusHistories.
220 BCEEratosthenesChronographiai.
200 BCEManethoAegyptiaca.
50 BCEDiodorusBibliotheca Historica.
100 CEThe Epitome of Aegyptiaca
100 CEJosephusContra Apion.
220 CEAfricanus – sourced from the Epitome.
325 CEEusebius – source from the Epitome.
380 CEJerome – Latin translation of Eusebius second book.
600 CEArmenian Eusebius – an Armenian translation of Eusebius
900 CESyncellus – extracts from Eusebius and Africanus.


With 2336 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
© 2011-2019 by Peter Lundström — All Rights Reserved — V.2019-07-08
Disclaimer: The content should be accurate, but errors and omissions are possible. All information is provided "as is". Always check the sources.