Lesser king lists that contains five or more pharaohs.
There are a number of king lists that are not as well known as the larger canons that were inscribed on temple walls. They come from various periods but all have in common that they contain the names of a number of kings.
Date: 19th dynasty
Provenance: Temple of Ramesses II at Abydos → Kingston Lacy → British Museum
Description: The memorial temple of Ramesses II at Abydos was excavated by William John Bankes in 1818, where this tablet of kings was found. It was acquired by the British Museum in 1837, as inventory number EA 117. It was inspired by the nearby Abydos Canon, the king list of Ramesses’ father Seti I, with the names of Ramesses added, and likely adorned one of the walls of the temple. Some of the names are written slightly different compared to the same names on his fathers list.
The first row (1–13) has the same sequence of kings as numbers 40–52 on the Abydos King-list. The names are badly damaged.
The second row (14–31) has the same sequence as numbers 61–76, plus Ramesses II’s prenomen and nomen (30-31.)
The third row repeats Ramesses II’s nomen and prenomen.
|#||First row right to left||AC||#||Second row right to left||AC|
Bankes. (1820). Unpublished, National Trust NT 1257799
Champollion. (1826). "Lettres", plate 6
Young. (1828). "Hieroglyphics", II, plate 47
Prisse. (1847). "Monuments", plate 2
Date: Dynasty V
Provenance: Giza Mastaba G1011 pit C - JE 37734 - Museum of Fine Arts Boston (Accession no. 13.4301)
Description: The Giza writing board was made of polished cedar wood and gypsum, presenting a short list of six pharaohs from different dynasties.
Names on the board, bottom to top
|Name in cartouche||Pharaoh||Dynasty|
|Neferirkara||Neferirkara I Kakai||V|
Reisner, G. "A Scribe's Tablet found by the Hearst Expedition at Giza" ZÄS 48 (1910): 113-114
Porter and Moss. (1974). Topographical Bibliography, III2, 52
Brovarski, E. "Two Old Kingdom writing boards from Giza" ASAE 71 (1987): 27-54, pl. 1
Date: Reign of Ramesses IV (dynasty XX)
Provenance: Deir el-Medinah, TT 359, room F
Description: Remains of deceased censing and wife before two rows of seated kings, queens, and princes, with Huy, painter, at end of lower row. Now mostly lost, but preserved by Lepsius' drawing.
|#||Pharaoh||Name in cartouche|
|1||Amenhotep I||Djoserkara (prenomen)|
|6||Amenhotep I||Amenhotep (nomen)|
|8||Ramesses IV||Heqamaatra Setepenamun|
Date: Reign of Den (Dynasty I)
Provenance: Abydos tomb T
Description: Seal impression containing a sequence of six names: Narmer, Aha, Djer, Djet, Den, and (queen) Merneith. This is a clear indication that Narmer founded the dynasty. The inclusion of queen Merneith suggests that she acted as regent for Den when he was young.
Dreyer, G. "Ein Siegel der frühzeitlichen Köningsnekropole van Abydos" MDAIK 43 (1986): 33-43. Abb. 2-3. Taf. 4-5
Kaiser W. "Zum Siegel mit frühen Königsnamen von Umm el-Qaab" MDAIK 43 (1986): 115-119; Abb. 1-2;
Date: Reign of Qa'a (Dynasty I)
Provenance: Abydos tomb Q
Description: Seal impression containing a sequence of eight names: Narmer, Aha, Djer, Wadj, Den, Anedjib, Semerkhet, and Qaa. This seal confirms that Narmer was the first king of the dynasty, as on the Den seal (above.) Queen Merneith's name is absent, which seems to confirm futher that she acted as regent for a young Den.
Dreyer G. et. al. "Umm el-Qaab. Nachuntersuchungen im frühzeitlichen Königsfriedhof. 7./8. Vorbericht." MDAIK 52 (1996): Abb. 26. Taf. 14 b, c.
Date: Dynasty XII-XIII
Provenance: Wadi Hammamat rock inscription
Description: The rock inscription at Wadi el-Fawachir in Wadi Hamamat consists of with five royal names and a short honorary prayer. Based on paleography, it is generally thought that the list was not contemporary with the fourth dynasty, but rather created during the twelfth or thirteenth dynasties – some 600 years later. The five names are (right to left): Khufu, Radjedef, Khafra, Hordjedefra, and Baufra.
Drioton, E. "Une Liste des Rois de la IV Dynastie dans l'Ouadi Hammamat" in Bulletin de la Société Français d'égyptologie 16 (1954): 41-49
Janosi, P (2005). Giza in der 4. Dynastie. Die Baugeschichte und Belegung einer Nekropole des Alten Reiches. I. 64-65
Date: Dynasty V
Provenance: unknown, maybe Memphis
Description: The seven surviving fragments of a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt include the Palermo Stone and its associated fragments. The stele contained a list of the kings of Egypt from predynastic kings through to the early part of the Fifth Dynasty and noted significant events in each year of their reigns. Because most of the stele is missing, the names that could be found on it is lost, but can be inferred by counting their known or assumed length of reign. This is obviously not a guarantee that a certain name was actually found on here.
The predynastic kings of lower Egypt that is on the list are as follows: Imikhet, Wenegbu, Niheb, Tiu, Itjiesh, Khaiu, and Seka.
The dynastic kings present are: Aha, Teti, Djer, Den, Ninetjer, Khasekhemwy, Djoser, Snoferu, Hunim Shepseskaf, Userkaf, Sahura and Neferirkara. Narmer, Aha, Djer, Den, Anedjib, Ninetjer, Khasekhemwy, Djoser, Huni, Snofru, Khufu, Djedefra, Shepseskaf, Userkaf, Sahura, Neferirkara, Semerkhet, Ka, and Sekhemkhet.
Names in the Annals
|Fragment||Names found||Implicit names|
Predynastic: Imikhet, Wenegbu, Niheb, Tiu, Itjiesh, Khaiu, and Seka|
Dynastic: Sneferu, Shepseskaf,
|Cairo 1||Djer, Sneferu,||Aha|
|Cairo 4||Sneferu, Khufu,||.....|
Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. I, §§ 76–167. (Chicago: 1906)
von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten, (Mainz am Rhein: 1997)
Maspero, Le Musée égyptien: recueil de monuments et de notices sur les fouilles d'Egypte, Vol 3, pp. 29-53, plates XXIV-XXXI (Cairo: 1915)
Sethe. Urkunden des alten Reiches, I, 235-249 (Leipzig: 1933)
Wilkinson, Royals Annals of Ancient Egypt, (London/New York: 2000)
Date: Dynasty VI
Provenance: Saqqara, storeroom south of the pyramid of Queen Iput II.
Description: The South Saqqara Stone was originally inscribed with a list of the pharaohs of the 6th dynasty from Teti, Userkara, Pepi I, Merenra I to the early years of Pepi II when it was likely created. It records each year of a king's reign, but unfortunately, it was reused for as tje sarcophagus lid for Ankhenespepi I, a queen of Pepi I, and mother of Nemtiemsaf I, and most of its inscriptions were erased.
Baud, M & Dobrev, V. "De nouvelles annales de l'Ancien Empire égyptien. Une 'Pierre de Palerme' pour la VIe dynastie." BIFAO 95 (1995): 23-63
Date: early Dynasty V
Provenance: Giza, tomb 89 of Lepsius.
Description: On the top of a false door.
Names in the scene:
1. Khafra 2. Menkaura 3. Shepseskaf 4. Userkaf 5. Sahura
Lepsius. (1849). "Denkmäler aus Ägypten" II, 41a
Sethe. (1933). Urkunden des alten Reiches, I, §15(106), 166
Porter and Moss. (1974). Topographical Bibliography, III2, 233-34
Date: early Dynasty V
Provenance: Giza, central field, small mastaba.
Description: Doorway lintel with the names of six kings.
Names in the scene:
1. Radjedef 2. Khafra 3. Menkaura 4. Shepseskaf 5. Userkaf 6. Sahura
Sethe. (1933). Urkunden des alten Reiches, I, §16(107), 166
Porter and Moss. (1974). Topographical Bibliography, III2, 278
Gauthier. (1925). Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'égypte, 160
Reisner. (1942) A History of the Giza Necropolis, I, p. 314 (a) Mastaba of Neter-puw-nesuwt.
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.