Den

Also known as: Dewen, Udimu Dynasty I

The Horus name Den is unlikely to be an accurate realisation. The meaning of the name is as obscure as its proper pronouncation. He was the first pharaoh to use the title nswt-bjtj (king of Upper and Lower Egypt.) The name of the fifth ruler on Abydos king list is Sepati, consisting of two N24 signs, which were likely misread in later periods instead of N25. Likewise, the name on the Turin papyrus, Qenty, has the sign Aa8 (qn) which is a probably a corruption of sign N24 (spAt) or N25 (xAstj) both known from other names of Den.

Reign of Den
AE Chronology2814–2772
von Beckerath2914–2867
Malek2879–2832
Grimal3050–2995
Turin Canon74 years
Manetho20 years

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Den: Den
Den
d-n
The slaughterer
d:n
Jar label with "Jubilee scene," British Museum EA 32650
Petrie, Royal Tombs, I, plates XIV, XV, XXI
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 5:H
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Den: Iaret nebu shen
Iaret nebu shen
iꜤr.t-nbw-šn
Golden cobra
I12-nbw:V9
Petrie, Royal Tombs, II, plate VII (12)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 5:G
Throne name
Throne name of Den: Khasty
Khasty
ḫꜢsti
He of the Two Deserts
N25:N25-t
Petrie, Royal Tombs, I, plate V (8-9, 11-12)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 5:N
Throne name variant
Throne name of Den: Sepati*
Sepati*
spꜢti
He of the great districts
N24-N24
Abydos king list 5
Mariette, Abydos, I, plate 43 (5)
The signs for desert (N25) were likely misread during the NK as districts (N24)
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 5:1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Den: Qenti*
Qenti*
ḳnti
qn:t*y
Royal Canon of Turin 3.16
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), II:16
Papyrus Ebers, Plate XXIX recto, Column 103.2
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 38-39, 5:2

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus i, 5 Ουσαφαιδoς Ousaphaidos Usaphaidus 20 years
Eusebius i, 5 Ουσαφαης Ousaphais Usaphais 20 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 38–39
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 78–80
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 6–9
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 26

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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