Roman Emperors with a hieroglyphic record

Egypt became a Roman province after the conquest of the last dynasty in 30 BC. They are included here because locally, the Emperors continued the use of hieroglyphics for another 300 years, until it finally stopped as the knowledge was eventually lost.

Roman Emperors <small>with a hieroglyphic record</small>
#EmperorLatin namesReign (CE)
1 Augustus Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus 27 BC - 14 CE
2 Tiberius Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti Fīlius Augustus 14–37
3 Caligula Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 37–41
4 Claudius Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 41–54
5 Nero Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 54–68
6 Galba Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus 68–69
7 Otho Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus 69
8 Vespasianus Vespsian, Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus 69–79
9 Titus Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus Augustus 79–81
10 Domitianus Domitian, Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus 81–96
11 Nerva Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus 96–98
12 Trajanus Trajan, Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Divi Nervae filius Augustus 98–117
13 Hadrianus Hadrian, Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus 117–138
14 Antoninus Pius Titus Fulvus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius 138–161
15 Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus 161–180
16 Lucius Verus Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus 161–169
17 Commodus Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus 177–192
18 Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus 193–211
19 Caracalla Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus 217–218
20 Geta Publius Septimius Geta Augustus 217–218
21 Macrinus Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus 244–249
22 Diadumenianus Diadumenian, Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus 249–251
23 Philippus Arabs Philip the Arab, Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus 253–260
24 Trajanus Decius Decius, Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius Augustus 276–282
25 Valerianus Valerian, Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus 284–305
26 Probus Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus 276–282
27 Diocletianus Diocletian, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus 284–305
28 Maximianus Maximian, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus 286–305
29 Galerius Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus 305–311
30 Maximinus Daia Maximinus II, Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus Daia Augustus 311–313
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Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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