Saqqara King list

The Saqqara king list (a.k.a. Saqqara Tablet) contains a list of Egyptian pharaohs. Mariette wrote of the discovery to his patron Vicomte de Rougé in March of 1860, but kept it a secret until publishing a report of the discovery in 1864.

It was found in a funerary shrine above the tomb of a lector priest by the name Manuel de Codage: V13:G43-N35:Z2:D21*Z1-M17-M17 Tjunery ( ṯwnry), who lived during the reign of Ramesses II. The location of the tomb is lost, but supposedly south of Djoser's step pyramid, close to the pyramid of Unas, between the Monastery and Sekhemkhet’s enclosure. The inscription originally listed 58 kings in two rows of 29 kings each, in reverse chronological order, starting with Ramesses II, going backwards to Adjib. It was discovered in eight parts, with a section missing, which was searched for but never found. It was assigned inventory number JE 11335 (CG 34516), and is on display in Hall 9 at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

It was written in the tradition of Lower Egypt, i.e. preferring honored ancestors with a strong affinity in Lower Egypt. The purpose of the list was to show celebrated "ancestors," and was not meant to be a complete chronological list, apparent by the exclusion of Hatshepsut and the heretic Amarna pharaohs.

Cartouche number 39 was recorded by Mariette in 1864 containing the name Menkaura, but this is the only attestation for this. In all subsequent line drawings, the cartouche is drawn as unreadable, so it is uncertain if the reading can be trusted.

Saqqara Canon king list

 


Upper row
left to right
#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
1
ra-wsr-C10A-stp&n&ra
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Ramesses II
Reconstructed partial name
based on known predecessors.
2
ra-mn-C10A
Men Maat Ra
mn-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Seti I
Reconstructed partial name
based on known predecessors.
3
ra-F9-t*t:mn
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Ramesses I
Reconstructed partial name
based on known predecessors.
4
ra:Dsr-xpr:Z2-stp&n&ra
Djoser kheperu Ra, setep en Ra
ḏsr-ḫprw stp-n-rꜤ
Horemheb
Reconstructed partial name
based on known predecessors.
5
ra-mAat-nb
Neb Maat Ra
nb-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Amenhotep III
Name missing from the list.
Position based on known predecessors.
6
ra-mn-xpr-Z2
Men kheperu Ra
mn-ḫprw-rꜤ
Thutmose IV
Name missing from the list.
Position based on known predecessors.
7
ra:aA-xpr-Z2
Aa kheperu Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫprw-rꜤ
Amenhotep II
Name missing from the list.
Position based on known predecessors.
8
ra:mn-xpr
Men kheper Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ
Thutmose III
Name missing from the list.
Position based on known predecessors.
9
ra:aA-xpr:n
Aa kheper en Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-n-rꜤ
Thutmose II
Name missing from the list.
Position based on known predecessors.
10
ra:aA-xpr-kA
Aa kheper ka Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Thutmose I
Name missing from the list.
Position based on known predecessors.
11
ra-Dsr-kA
Djoser ka Ra
ḏsr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Amenhotep I
12
ra-F9-nb
Neb pehty Ra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
Ahmose I
13
ra-P8-nb
Neb hapet Ra
nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ
Mentuhotep II
14
ra-s-anx-kA
Sankh ka Ra
s-Ꜥnḫ-kꜢ-rꜤ
Mentuhotep III
15
ra-s-Htp:t-p-ib-Z1
Sehotep ib Ra
s-ḥtp-ib-rꜤ
Amenemhat I
16
ra-xpr-kA
Kheper ka Ra
ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Senusret I
17
ra-nbw-kA
Nebu ka Ra
nbw-kꜢ-rꜤ
Amenemhat II
18
ra-xa-xpr
Kha kheper Ra
ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤ
Senusret II
19
ra-xa-kA
Kha ka Ra
ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ
Senusret III
20
ra-H6-n
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
Amenemhat III
21
ra-U4:a-P8-w
Maa kheru Ra
mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤ
Amenemhat IV
22
ra-I4-kA
Sobek ka Ra
sbk-kꜢ-rꜤ
Neferusobek
23
ra-nfr-kA
Nefer ka Ra
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Pepi II
24
ra-U7:n
Mer en Ra
mr-n-rꜤ
Nemtiemsaf I
25
p:p-i-i
Pepi
pipi
Pepi I
26
t:t-i
Teti
tti
Teti
27
wn:n-i-s
Unas
wnis
Unas
28
ra-Sw-kA
Maat ka Ra
mꜢꜤt-kꜢ-rꜤ
Djedkara Isesi
29
G5-mn:kA
Men ka Hor
mn-kꜢ-ḥr
Menkauhor Kaiu
Lower row
left to right
#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
30
ra-xa-nfr
Kha nefer Ra
ḫꜤ-nfr-rꜤ
Neferefra Isi
31
ra-Sps-s-s-kA
Shepses ka Ra
špss-kꜢ-rꜤ
Shepseskara Netjeruser
32
ra-nfr-ir-kA
Nefer ir ka Ra
nfr-ir-kꜢ-rꜤ
Neferirkara I Kakai
33
ra-sAH-w
Sahu Ra
sꜢḥw-rꜤ
Sahura
34
wsr-s-kA-f
User kaf
wsr-kꜢ-f
Userkaf
35 Destroyed cartouche Unreadable
Hieroglyphs destroyed or unreadable
36 Destroyed cartouche Unreadable
Hieroglyphs destroyed or unreadable
37 Destroyed cartouche Unreadable
Hieroglyphs destroyed or unreadable
38 Destroyed cartouche Unreadable
Hieroglyphs destroyed or unreadable
39
ra:mn-kA*kA:kA
Men kau Ra
mn-kꜢ.w-rꜤ
Menkaura
Uncertain reading, only seen by Mariette in 1864.
40
ra-xa-w-f
Khaf Ra
ḫꜤ.w-f-rꜤ
Khafra
41
ra-Dd-Dd-f
Djedef Ra
ḏd-f-rꜤ
Radjedef
42
x:f-w-f
Khufu
ḫwfwf
Khufu
43
s-nfr-f:r-w
Sneferu
s-nfr-w
Sneferu
44
H-A25-n:y:D40
Huni
ḥw-ni
Huni
45
ra:nb-kA
Neb ka Ra
nb-kꜢ-rꜤ
Nebkara
46
Dsr-i-t:t
Djoser Teti
ḏsr-tti
Sekhemkhet
47
Dsr-r
Djoser
ḏsr
Djoser
48
b-b-N21-i-i
Beby
bby
Khasekhemwy
49
V1:F18-D-f:wSA
Hudjefa
ḥw-ḏfꜢ
Hudjefa I
50
z:k:r-nfr-kA-Z1
Nefer ka Sokar
nfr-kꜢ-skr
Neferkasokar
51
ra-nfr-kA
Nefer ka Ra
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Sneferka
52
snD
Senedj
snḏ
Senedj
53
wAD-F20:Z1-F51
Wadjlas
wꜢḏ-l-s
Wadjenes
54
W10A-G29-nTr-t:r-w
Ba netjeru
bꜢ-ntrw
Ninetjer
55
kA-D52A:D52A:D52A
Kakau
kꜢ-kꜢw
Nebra
56
nTr-G30
Bau netjer
bꜢw-nṯr
Hotepsekhemwy
57
q-b-H-w-W15
Qebehu
ḳbḥw
Qaa
58
U7:r-y-N42*p:n
Meri bia pen
mri-biꜢ-pn
Adjib

Illustrations



Saqqara king list 1864 - press ENTER for full image
Mariette 1864

Plate XVII
Size: 1462x519 (270 kB)

deRouge 1865 - press ENTER for full image
de Rougé, 1865

Album photographique, no. 143-145
Size: 1195x566 (146 kB)

Saqqara king list 1866 - press ENTER for full image
de Rougé 1866

Recherches sur les Monuments..., Plate I
Size: 2000x608 (362 kB)

Saqqara king list 1872 - press ENTER for full image
Mariette 1872

Plate 58
Size: 1861x939 (472 kB)

Saqqara king list 2011 - press ENTER for full image
Pharaoh.se 2011-12

My own reconstruction
Size: 3766x876 (957 kB)

Saqqara king list 2015 - press ENTER for full image
Pharaoh.se 2015

My own updated reconstruction
Size: 3766x920 (788 kB)

Bibliography


  • : "Lettre de M. Aug. Mariette A M. le Vicomte De Rougé" in Revue Archeologique, N.S. ii, (Paris 1860) p. 20-23
  • : Album photographique de la mission remplie en Égypte, (Paris 1865), Photographs, No. 143-145 de Rouge, Album Photographique, 1865 - press ENTER for full image
  • : Recherches sur les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon, (Paris 1866), Plate I de Rouge 1866 - press ENTER for full image
  • : "La table de Saqqarah" in Revue Archeologique, Vol 10, (Paris 1864) p. 169-186, Plate XVII Mariette 1864 - press ENTER for full image
  • : Monuments divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie, (Paris 1872) Vol. II, Pl. 57b, 58, text Vol. I, p. 18-19 Mariette, Monuments, 1872 - press ENTER for full image
  • : Ägyptische Chronologie, Plate 1, (Berlin 1904)
  • : Ramesside Inscriptions, Vol. III, pp. 481-482 (Oxford 1980) Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions, III, pages 481-482
  • : Topographical Bibliography, Vol. III, part 2, pp. 666 (Oxford 1981)
  • : Chronologie des pharaonischen Aegypten, p. 216 (Mainz 1997)
  • Devéria, Théodule: Squeezes in the Louvre, 6165

 



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With 2336 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
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