Turin king list: Column 1

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Column
25 rows — Gods.

An introduction (that is lost in lacuna) detailing the content and perhaps the purpose of the king list, including the date and perhaps even the name of the scribe. This is followed by the nine gods of the Great Ennead (1.12-20), and the summation (1.21-24).

Table 1: Overview of column 1
RowsRemarks
1–9Lacuna (Introduction)
10–11Lacuna (Heading for the Gods?)
12–20Seven gods (1.14-1.20) with two lost in lacuna.
21–24Summation for the Gods
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 1.1
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.2
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.3
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.4
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.5
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.6
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.7
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.8
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.9
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.10
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.11
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 1.12
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
The first of the nine gods of the Ennead would have been recorded here.
Column 1.13
the Turin king list 1.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.13 (hieroglyphics)

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerI 13Fragment11 + 151
The second of the nine gods of the Ennead would have been recorded here.
Column 1.14
the Turin king list 1.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Geb reigned ... 13
nsw-bit gb ꜤḥꜤ ... 13

DivinityGeb
GardinerI 14Fragment11 + 151
A simple comparison between Möller No. 217 and 221 make it clear that the bird sign G38 (gb) is the correct reading, as read by Farina,1 despite Gardiner reading it as G41.2 Only the lower part of the ten-sign at the end is evident, meaning the number could be a 10, 20 or 30.
1.   Farina 1938: 16 (I 14)
2.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (I 14 a)
Column 1.15
the Turin king list 1.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Osiris ...
nsw-bit wsir

DivinityOsiris
GardinerI 15Fragment11 + 151
The first sign of Osiris Osiris hieroglyphics name, Q1, is normally written in hieratic with two vertical lines, and not as seen here with a bent second stroke. Gardiner read the sign as U40, but that sign is not present in Möller. Furthermore, there is no mythological being that begin with the U40-sign, so it is reasonably certain that the sign should be read as Q1, as read by Farina.1
1.   Farina 1938: 16 (I 15)
Column 1.16
the Turin king list 1.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Set ... 200 + x years
nsw-bit stẖ ... rnp.t 200

DivinitySet
GardinerI 16Fragment11
The hundred sign at the end seems to be a 200 in Lepsius and Wilkinson, but Gardiner only noted that it is a hundred sign.1
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (I 16 b)
Column 1.17
the Turin king list 1.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Horus gods 300 years
nsw-bit ḥr-nṯrw-rnpt 300

DivinityHorus
GardinerI 17Fragment11
There does not appear to be a cartouche close, likely due to a mistake by the scribe.
Column 1.18
the Turin king list 1.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Djehuty (Thoth), life, prosperity, and health 7726 years
nsw-bit ḏḥwty Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb rnpt 7726

DivinityThoth
GardinerI 18Fragment11
The thousands number is clearly 7000,1 and not 3000 as incorrectly read by Farina.2
1.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 647 vs 643.
2.   Farina 1938: 16 (I 18)
Column 1.19
the Turin king list 1.19 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.19 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.19 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Maat ... 700 (+x) years
nsw-bit mꜢꜤ.t rnpt 700 (+x)

DivinityMaat
GardinerI 19Fragment11
The cobra-sign (a determinative for a goddess) is an anomaly not usually seen in Maat's name. The number could perhaps be part of a 700-sign, which is the only hieratic number that looks similar to the traces. The cartouche close is missing.
Column 1.20
the Turin king list 1.20 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.20 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.20 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Haroeris...
nsw- bit ḥr-wr ...

DivinityHor...
GardinerI 20Fragment11 + 12
There are traces of the bee and the cartouche open, followed by the Horus falcon, the rest is lost, but likely held the name of Horus the Elder, Haroeris, the patron of the pharaohs.
Column 1.21
the Turin king list 1.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.21 (hieroglyphics)

Total: x kings their years...
dmḏ nswyt x rnpt s[n]

 Summation 
GardinerI 21Fragment11 + 12
The total sign (dmḏ) in red ink make it clear this row contained a summation. Fragment 12 consist of two parts that were wrongly placed by Seyffarth, the leftmost part was repositioned according to matching fibres by Ibscher/Farina to 1.24-25.1 Seeing it in context, it is likely that lines 1.21-24 is one long summation, as can also be seen in 5.14-17. The entire summation would read roughly as:  "Total: their years x, a total of 9 kings reigned from King Ra to King Haroeris, x years, y months, z days and a lacuna of x years. Total: ?7718 years".2
Restoration
Helck, Anmerkungen, 152

Hieroglyphic restoration of 1.21 the Turin king list by Helck, <em>Anmerkungen</em>, 152

dmD aHa sn
Total: their years x
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (I 24 a)
2.   Helck 1992: 152ff, 216
Column 1.22
the Turin king list 1.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.22 (hieroglyphics)

Total: 9 kings ...
dmḏ ... 9

 Summation 
GardinerI 22Fragment11 + 12
Summation continued from (1.21). The reading of the first trace as dmḏ by Farina1 is not entirely certain, but there seem to be no possible alternative, as noted by Gardiner.2 The number nine is significant, because it is the number of deities comprising the various Enneads.
Restoration
Helck, Anmerkungen, 152f

Hieroglyphic restoration of 1.22 the Turin king list by Helck, <em>Anmerkungen</em>, 152f

Total: 9 kings, their reigns from King Ra to
1.   Farina 1938: 17 (I 22). Farina used S23 instead of the correct Y1 sign in his king list. Both read as dmḏ, but Y1 is the correct hieratic sign.
2.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (I 22 a)
Column 1.23
the Turin king list 1.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Haroeris ...
nsw-bit ḥr wr ...

 Summation 
GardinerI 23Fragment11 + 12
Summation continued from (1.22). A second king starting with the Horus falcon, the rest of the text is lost. This name is the same as recorded in 1.20, but here possibly part of the summation, in a similar format as seen in 5.14-17. The position of the nsw-bit at the beginning of the row is coincidental. Helck propose a reading of: King Haroeris x years, y months, z days, omitted x years, 10 months, 28 days.1
1.   Helck 1992: 154
Column 1.24
the Turin king list 1.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.24 (hieroglyphics)

... 7718 years
... rnpt 7718

 Summation 
GardinerI 24Fragment11 + 12
Summation continued from (1.23), recording only numbers. Helck propose Total: x7718 years, y months, z days.1
1.   Helck 1992: 154
Column 1.25
the Turin king list 1.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 1.25 (hieroglyphics)

 Heading/Summation? 
GardinerI 25Fragment12
The scant traces make it impossible to say if this row continued the summation, a name of a king, a heading, or some other text.

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

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