Turin king list: Column 10

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Column
31 rows — 27 kings.

Thirty-one rows with 27 kings bringing an end to the kings of the Fourteenth Dynasty. The invading Hyksos kings of the Fifteenth Dynasty are included, which confim that the list of kings was seemingly compiled without bias.

Table 1: Overview of column 10
RowsRemarksKings
1–3Fourteenth Dynasty (continued)3
4Lacuna (Fourteenth Dynasty)1
5–15Fourteenth Dynasty11
16–20Lacuna (Fourteenth Dynasty)5
21Summation for the Fourteenth Dynasty
22Lacuna (Heading Fifteenth Dynasty)
23–25Lacuna (Fifteenth Dynasty)3
26–28Fifteenth Dynasty3
29Summation for Fifteenth Dynasty
30Heading for the Sixteenth Dynasty
31Sixteenth Dynasty1
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 10.1
the Turin king list 10.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ra ...
nsw-bit rꜤ...

King...ra (167th king)DynastyXIV (31)
GardinerX 1Fragment105
Only the opening cartouche with the divine sun-disc remain, the name is lost.
Column 10.2
the Turin king list 10.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (168th king)DynastyXIV (32)
GardinerX 2Fragment105
Only the partial title remain, the name is lost.
Column 10.3
the Turin king list 10.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (169th king)DynastyXIV (33)
GardinerX 3Fragment105
Only the partial title remain, the name is lost.
Column 10.4
the Turin king list 10.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (170th king)DynastyXIV (34)
GardinerX 4Fragment105
The entire row is lost in lacuna.
Column 10.5
the Turin king list 10.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ra ...
nsw-bit ...rꜤ ...

King...ra (171st king)DynastyXIV (35)
GardinerX 5Fragment108
Only traces of the title and opening cartouche remain, the name is lost.
Column 10.6
the Turin king list 10.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ra ...
nsw-bit ...rꜤ ...

King...ra (172nd king)DynastyXIV (36)
GardinerX 6Fragment108
Only the title and the opening cartouche remain, the name is lost.
Column 10.7
the Turin king list 10.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Senefer...ra ...
nsw-bit s-nfr...rꜤ ...

KingSenefer...ra (173rd king)DynastyXIV (37)
GardinerX 7Fragment108
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 380 (File 14/43)
Column 10.8
the Turin king list 10.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Men...ra ...
nsw-bit mn...rꜤ ...

KingMen...ra (174th king)DynastyXIV (38)
GardinerX 8Fragment108
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 380 (File 14/44)
Column 10.9
the Turin king list 10.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Djed...ra
nsw-bit ḏd...rꜤ ...

KingDjed... (175th king)DynastyXIV (39)
GardinerX 9Fragment108
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 380 (File 14/45)
Column 10.10
the Turin king list 10.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (176th king)DynastyXIV (40)
GardinerX 10Fragment108
Only traces of the title remain, the name is lost.
Column 10.11
the Turin king list 10.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (177th king)DynastyXIV (41)
GardinerX 12Fragment112
A horizontal fibre-match between fr. 112 and fr. 100 in column 9 to the right shows that it should be moved up one line compared to Gardiner.1 The name is lost, only a tiny trace of the title remain.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 24 (§1.1.3.2.4)
Column 10.12
the Turin king list 10.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (178th king)DynastyXIV (42)
GardinerX 13Fragment112
Only a few traces of an unreadable name remains. A horizontal fibre-match between fr. 112 and fr. 100 in column 9 to the right shows that it should be moved up one line compared to Gardiner.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 24 (§1.1.3.2.4)
Column 10.13
the Turin king list 10.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Inek...
nsw-bit ink...

KingInek... (179th king)DynastyXIV (43)
GardinerX 14Fragment112
A horizontal fibre-match between fr. 112 and fr. 100 in column 9 to the right shows that it should be moved up one line compared to Gardiner.1 The king is otherwise unattested.2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 24 (§1.1.3.2.4)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 380 (File 14/49)
Column 10.14
the Turin king list 10.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King 'A...
nsw-bit i...

King'A... (180th king)DynastyXIV (44)
GardinerX 15Fragment112
A horizontal fibre-match between fr. 112 and fr. 100 in column 9 to the right shows that it should be moved up one line compared to Gardiner.1 This unknown king is otherwise unattested.2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 24 (§1.1.3.2.4)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 380 (File 14/50)
Column 10.15
the Turin king list 10.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Ip...
nsw-bit ip...

KingIp... (181st king)DynastyXIV (45)
GardinerX 16Fragment112
A horizontal fibre-match between fr. 112 and fr. 100 in column 9 to the right shows that it should be moved up one line compared to Gardiner.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 24 (§1.1.3.2.4)
Column 10.16
the Turin king list 10.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (182nd king)DynastyXIV (46)
The entire row is lost.
Column 10.17
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.17 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (183rd king)DynastyXIV (47)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 10.18
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.18 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (184th king)DynastyXIV (48)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 10.19
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.19 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (185th king)DynastyXIV (49)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 10.20
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.20 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (186th king)DynastyXIV (50)
The papyrus is lost.
Column 10.21
the Turin king list 10.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.21 (hieroglyphics)

Total: X kings have reigned ... years ...
dmḏ nsw ... ir.n=sn rnpt ...

 Summation 
GardinerX /13Fragment?
Summation of the Fourteenth Dynasty. Ryholt moved Gardiner's placement of the fragment down eight lines,1 According to Manetho, 76 kings ruled the Fourteenth Dynasty for a total of 184 years.2 Note that the tenatively traced hieratic signs are from the poor photo of Farina, and in dire need of improvement.3
Restoration
Ryholt, Political Situation, 25-26

Hieroglyphic restoration of 10.21 the Turin king list by Ryholt, <em>Political Situation</em>, 25-26

dmḏ nsw ... ir.n=sn rnpt ... Ꜣbd ... hrw ...
Total: x kings. They made up x years, x months and x days
1.   Ryholt 1997: 25-26., fig. 11 p. 95
2.   Adler and Tuffin, The Chronography of George Synkellos, 86f.
3.   Farina 1938: plate X
Column 10.22
the Turin king list 10.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.22 (hieroglyphics)

 Heading 
GardinerX /14Fragment?
Possibly contained the heading for the Fifteenth Dynasty of foreign kings (Hyksos) that conquered the northern parts of the kingdom.
Column 10.23
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.23 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (187th king)DynastyXV (1)
Since title is lost, there is no evidence either way that the often claimed Ruler of foreign lands Heqakhasut (ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt) appeared here,1 instead of the regular nsw-bit.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 123ff.; Ryholt 2004: 142
Column 10.24
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.24 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (188th king)DynastyXV (2)
Since title is lost, there is no evidence either way that the often claimed Ruler of foreign lands Heqakhasut (ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt) appeared here,1 instead of the regular nsw-bit.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 123ff.; Ryholt 2004: 142
Column 10.25
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.25 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (189th king)DynastyXV (3)
Since title is lost, there is no evidence either way that the often claimed Ruler of foreign lands Heqakhasut (ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt) appeared here,1 instead of the regular nsw-bit.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 123ff.; Ryholt 2004: 142
Column 10.26
the Turin king list 10.26 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.26 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.26 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 10 + x years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 10 ...

KingUnknown (190th king)DynastyXV (4)
GardinerX /16FragmentX/16-17
The number may be a 10, 20, or 30, as only a trace of the right leg of the ten-sign remain.1 The signs are slightly uncertain, traced from the poor photo of Farina. Since title is lost, there is no evidence either way that the often claimed Ruler of foreign lands Heqakhasut (ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt) appeared here,1 instead of the regular nsw-bit.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 119, note 398
2.   Ryholt 1997: 123ff.; Ryholt 2004: 142
Column 10.27
the Turin king list 10.27 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.27 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.27 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 40 + x years
nsw-bit ... rnpt 40 ...

KingUnknown (191st king)DynastyXV (5)
GardinerX /17FragmentX16-17 + X/20-21
Of the kings of this Dynasty, only Apepi is known to have ruled for more than 30 years, so this is normally ascribed to him. The signs are slightly uncertain, traced from the poor photo of Farina. Since the start of the row is lost, there is no evidence either way that the often claimed title ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt appeared here,1 instead the regular nsw-bit.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 123ff.; Ryholt 2004: 142
Column 10.28
the Turin king list 10.28 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.28 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.28 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khamudy ...
nsw-bit ḫꜢmdwi ...

KingKhamudy (192nd king)DynastyXV (6)
GardinerX /20FragmentX/20-21
The signs are slightly uncertain, traced from the poor photo of Farina. Since title is lost, there is no evidence either way that the often claimed Ruler of foreign lands Heqakhasut (ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt) appeared here,1 instead of nsw-bit which is recorded for all other kings.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 123ff.; Ryholt 2004: 142
Column 10.29
the Turin king list 10.29 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.29 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 10.29 (hieroglyphics)

Total: 6 rulers of foreign lands have reigned for the period of 140/160/180 + x years ...
dmḏ ḥḳꜢw-ḫꜢswt 6 ir.n=sn rnpt 100 ...

 Summation 
GardinerX /21FragmentX/20-21
Following the clear 100-sign there is a horizontal trace of a lost number that is not as read by Gardiner as an eight,1 but more likely a 40, 60, or 80.2 The number of years can thus be somewhere in the 140-189 range. According to Manetho, six foreign kings from Phoenicia ruled the Fifteenth Dynasty for a total of 284 years.3
1.   Gardiner 1959: 17 (X 21 b)
2.   Schneider, Khyan’s Place in History, 277ff.
3.   Adler and Tuffin, The Chronography of George Synkellos, 86f.
Column 10.30
 Heading 
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
This lost row recorded the heading for the Sixteenth Dynasty.1
1.   Ryholt 2004: 140 (Table 3)
Column 10.31
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 10.31 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

KingUnknown (193rd king)DynastyXVI (1)
It is clear that the lost record of the first king of the Sixteenth Dynasty must have stood in the last line of column 10.1 From the emended fifteen kings in the summation of the dynasty (11.15) it is clear that one missing king must have been present after the lost heading of the dynasty (10.30), adding to the 14 kings present (11.1-14).2
1.   Ryholt 1997: 151
2.   Beckerath 1964: 168-169, 194-195

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

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