Turin king list: Column 2

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Column
26 rows — Gods and other divine beings.

Fragments with the names of gods, demigods, and sacred animals. This column 2 is not present in Farina or Gardiner, but was reconstructed by Ryholt from fragments in column X. This column makes sense as it contains the names of divine beings, which would have been present in the early parts of the document. However, the writing is quite small and compact compared to columns 1 and 3, which contradict this position, which seems to fit better in columns 10 or 11. The patch on fr. 41 and 42 is consistent with a 'missing' patch that should be located in the vicinity of the proposed second column.

Table 1: Overview of column 2
RowsRemarksKings
1–7Sacred animals?7
8–11Four gods4
12Lacuna
13–18Five names (of gods?)5
19–20Lacuna
21–23Three names (of gods)3
24–26Lacuna
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 2.1
the Turin king list 2.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Ibis(?) ...
nsw-bit hꜢb ...

DivinityIbis
GardinerIX 17Fragment41
The reading of this name is very difficult due to the badly damaged signs, though the name seems to belong to a group of sacred animals, and not a deity as such.1 2 Written on a patch. Seyffarth placed fr. 41+42 at the top of column V,3 which Farina moved to the middle of column IX.4 Gardiner indicated that Farina's position cannot be correct, and that the fragments should be placed at the top of the papyrus, likely to the right of fr. 1,5 which was confimed by Ryholt. Accordingly, Gardiner’s column II is in reality column 3.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 17 (Frgts. 41, 42)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 25
3.   Lepsius, Auswahl, plate 4
4.   Farina 1938: plate IX
5.   Gardiner 1959: 17, 11
Column 2.2
the Turin king list 2.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Aped ...
nsw-bit Ꜣpd ...

DivinityThe Bird/Goose(?)
GardinerIX 18Fragment41
The name here seems to belong to a group of sacred animals, and not a deity as such.1 2 Written on a patch. For further information about fr. 41+42, see 2.1 above.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 17 (Frgts. 41, 42)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 25
Column 2.3
the Turin king list 2.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Hepu ...
nsw-bit ḥpw ...

DivinityApis
GardinerIX 19Fragment41
The name here seems to belong to a group of sacred animals, and not a deity as such.1 2 Written on a patch. For further information about fr. 41+42, see 2.1 above.
1.   Gardiner 1959: 17 (Frgts. 41, 42)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 25
Column 2.4
the Turin king list 2.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Shemsu ...
nsw-bit šmsw ir.n ...

DivinityShemsu
GardinerIX 20Fragment89 + 41
Written on a patch, Shemsu translates to "the follower".1 2 For further information about fr. 41+42, see 2.1 above.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 25
2.   Gardiner 1957: 595
Column 2.5
the Turin king list 2.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Meni ...
nsw-bit mni ...

DivinityMeni
GardinerIX 21Fragment89 + 41 + 42
The tiny traces on fr. 42 cannot be conclusively interpreted. For further information about fr. 41+42, see 2.1 above.
Column 2.6
the Turin king list 2.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Werqa ...
nsw-bit wr-ḳꜢ ...

DivinityWerqa
GardinerIX 22Fragment89 + 41 + 42
The name is written on a patch, and translate to "great-of-height".1 For further information about fr. 41+42, see 2.1 above.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 25
Column 2.7
the Turin king list 2.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.7 (hieroglyphics)

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerIX 23Fragment41 + 42
Only a tiny trace of the top of a sign remain.
Column 2.8
the Turin king list 2.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Af...
nsw-bit if ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 1Fragment150
Only the first sign remain, and below the row what is possibly the tail of sign I9 (f). It is impossible to decipher a possible name.
Column 2.9
the Turin king list 2.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Seth ...
nsw-bit stẖ ...

DivinitySeth
GardinerX 2Fragment150
For unknown reasons, the name Seth appears for the second time (first ocurrance is on fr. 11 in column 1.16) in the king list.
Column 2.10
the Turin king list 2.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King "The doctor" ...
nsw-bit swnw ...

DivinityThoth
GardinerX 3Fragment150
This is not a name per se, but rather a description of Thoth.1 The name Thoth is also found on fr. 11 in column 1.18.
1.   Ryholt 2004: 139
Column 2.11
the Turin king list 2.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Horus ...
nsw-bit ḥrw ...

DivinityHorus
GardinerX 4Fragment150
This is the second ocurrance of Horus, which is also found on fr. 11 in column 1.17.
Column 2.12
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 2.13
the Turin king list 2.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.13 (hieroglyphics)

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 6Fragment152
The tiny traces are unreadable.
Column 2.14
the Turin king list 2.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.14 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King "does not thirst" ...
nsw-bit n ib ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 7Fragment152
This partial name can perhaps be read as "... does not thirst" or "... never thirsts." 1
1.   Ryholt 2004: 139
Column 2.15
the Turin king list 2.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 8Fragment151 + 152
The hieratic signs are unintelligible.1 Farina's transliteration, Farina transliteration Nesensebk sew...2 is very uncertain. The sbk-sign seem likely, but the other signs make no sense.3
1.   Gardiner 1959: 17 (X 8 a)
2.   Farina 1938: 52 (X 9)
3.   Ryholt 2004: 139
Column 2.16
the Turin king list 2.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Pensetensepet ...
nsw-bit pns.t n spt ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 9Fragment151 + 152
The transcription of the name by Farina1 was translated as clods of the shore by Beckerath.2
1.   Farina 1938: 52 (X 10)
2.   Beckerath 1999: 112 n. 1 (Erdklumpen des Ufers)
Column 2.17
the Turin king list 2.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Her-hemut-shepsesut
nsw-bit ẖr-ḥm.wt-šps.w[t]

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 10Fragment151
The probably made up name translates to "possessor of noble women".1 The first row of Champollion's fragment Ee.
1.   Ryholt 2004: 139
Column 2.18
the Turin king list 2.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khu-hemut-shepsesut
nsw-bit ḫw-ḥm.wt-šps.wt?

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 11Fragment151
The probably made up name translates to "protector of [noble?] women".1 The second row of Champollion's fragment Ee.
1.   Ryholt 2004: 139
Column 2.19
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 2.20
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 2.21
the Turin king list 2.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerX 24Fragment22 + ?
Only traces remain making the reading very uncertain. Fragment 22 is Champollion's fragment U.
Column 2.22
the Turin king list 2.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sokar ...
nsw-bit skr ...

DivinitySokar
GardinerX 25Fragment22 + ?
Fragment 22 is Champollion's fragment U.
Column 2.23
the Turin king list 2.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 2.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King, Iaret x years ...
nsw-bit Ꜥrt ... rnpt ...

DivinityIaret (Uraeus)
GardinerX 26Fragment22 + ?
The name recorded here is probably the first signs of Uraeus (iart).1 Fragment 22 is Champollion's fragment U. The value of the horizontal trace of a number at the end cannot be determined.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 24
Column 2.24
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 2.25
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna
Column 2.26
 Papyrus is lost
This row is lost in lacuna

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

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