Turin king list: Column 3

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Column
25 rows — 14 kings.

Twenty-five rows, the first nine describe spirits; the king list starts with a heading on the tenth row. This column is extra wide to accomodate the lifetime of the kings. The eight kings of the First Dynasty compare exactly with Manetho, but discrepancies begin to emerge starting with the kings of the Second Dynasty.

Table 1: Overview of column 3
RowsRemarksKings
1–9Spirits/Demigods with Summation
10Heading for First through Tenth dynasties(?)
11–19First Dynasty8
20–25Second Dynasty6
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 3.1
the Turin king list 3.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.1 (hieroglyphics)

... 20, their years 1110, their lifetime …
... 20 rnpt sn 1110 ꜤḥꜤw s...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 1Fragment1
A town was probably named at the start of the text, indicated by the town sign (O49).1
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 1 a)
Column 3.2
the Turin king list 3.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.2 (hieroglyphics)

Spirits ... 10, their reigns …
Ꜣḫw ... 10 ir.n f m nswyt sn ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 2Fragment3 + 1 (+ 1* + 2)
Helck1 proposed joining fr. 2 at the left side of row 2, following the small top part of fr. 1 which Farina had removed,2 from where Seyffarth had originally placed it.3
Restoration
Helck 1992: 160f.

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.2 the Turin king list by Helck 1992: 160f.

Spirits ... 10, their reigns … xxx7 years, x their lifetime ...
Ꜣḫw ... 10 ir.n f m nswyt sn ... rnpt xxx7 ꜤḥꜤw ...
1.   Helck 1992: 160f.
2.   Gardiner 1959: 17
3.   Lepsius. Auswahl pl. 3
Column 3.3
the Turin king list 3.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.3 (hieroglyphics)

Spirits ... their years 330, their lifetime ...
Ꜣḫw ... sn 330 ꜤḥꜤw ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 3Fragment3 + 1 (+ 1* + 2)
Written on a patch, only small traces of the ink remain of the initial S29-sign, the signs prior are lost. Helck1 proposed adding fr. 2 and the top of fr. 1 removed by Gardiner2 to the right of fr. 1.
Restoration
Helck 1992: 160f.

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.3 the Turin king list by Helck 1992: 160f.

Spirits ... their years 330, their lifetime 1000 (+x) ...
Ꜣḫw ... sn 330 ꜤḥꜤw sn 1000 (+ x) ...
1.   Helck 1992: 160f.
2.   Gardiner 1959: 17
Column 3.4
the Turin king list 3.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.4 (hieroglyphics)

Total: ... 10, their reigns, their life: 1000 (+x) ...
dmḏ ... 10 nswyt sn rnpt sn m Ꜥnḫ rnp.t 1000 (+x) ...

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 4Fragment3 + 1
The tiny red trace at the bottom of fr. 3 is only present in Lepsius,1 but not even commented on by Farina or Gardiner. Only the lower part of the ten-sign is preserved, meaning the number is either a 10, 20 or 30, or less likely 70 as suggested by Helck.2
Restoration
Helck 1992: 161

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.4 the Turin king list by Helck 1992: 161

Total: Spirits 70, their years, their lifetime: 1000 (+x)
Ꜣḫw 70 nswyt sn rnp.t sn m Ꜥnḫ rnpt 1000 (+ x) ...
1.   Lepsius, Auswahl, plate 3
2.   Helck 1992: 161
Column 3.5
the Turin king list 3.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.5 (hieroglyphics)

... those of Hunut(?) 19, 11 years, 4 months, 22 days
... ḥw-wnwt 19 rnpt 11 Ꜣbdw 4 hrw 22

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 5Fragment1
The suggested placename1 is not certain, but the wall sign (O36, inb) suggest some sort of walled town.2
1.   Helck 1992: 161
2.   Farina 1938: 18 translated it as "Le Cinte" (the Belt?)
Column 3.6
the Turin king list 3.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.6 (hieroglyphics)

The union of 19 spirits of (Thinis?)... 2341(+x) years …
... imy smꜢ 19 rnpt 2341(+x)

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 6Fragment1
The small traces remaining of the last two digits of the number make it questionable.1 The hieratic N5 (rꜤ) is very similar to O49 (niwt) which could indicate the name of a town, perhaps Thinis.2 The individual words imy and smꜣ translate to "who are in" and "union".
Restoration
Helck 1992: 161

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.6 the Turin king list by Helck 1992: 161

19 Followers of Horus who are in Thinis, 2341 (+ x) years their lifetime ...
šmsw ḥr imy smꜢ rnpt 2341 (+ x) ....
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 6 c)
2.   Helck 1992: 161
Column 3.7
the Turin king list 3.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.7 (hieroglyphics)

... the father, 7 women, their Years and lifetime, 100 (+x)
... ḥr it st.w 7 rnpt sn ꜤḥꜤ sn 100 (+x)

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 7Fragment1
The rightmost part is the first row of Champollion's fragment Nn.
Restoration
Helck 1992: 161

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.7 the Turin king list by Helck 1992: 161

Princesses representing the father, 7 women, their years and lifetime, 100 (+x)
nswt zꜢ.t wḥmw ḥr it st.w 7 rnpt sn ꜤḥꜤ sn 100 (+x)
Column 3.8
the Turin king list 3.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.8 (hieroglyphics)

... of the spirits and the followers of Horus, 13420 (+ x) years
... ḫw šmsw-ḥr rnpt 13420 + x

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 8Fragment1
Followers of Horus.1 The rightmost part is the second row of Champollion's fragment Nn.
Restoration
Helck 1992: 161

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.8 the Turin king list by Helck 1992: 161

Reign of Spirits and Followers of Horus 13420 years
nswyt Ꜣḫw šmsw-ḥr rnpt 13420
1.   Sethe 1905: 3ff.
Column 3.9
the Turin king list 3.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.9 (hieroglyphics)

their lifetime to the followers of Horus: 23200 (+ x) years
.. nfryt(?) r šmsw-ḥr rnp[t] 23200 (+ x)

DivinityUncertain/Unknown
GardinerII 9Fragment1
The traces of the year sign where the papyrus breaks off sign are clear, and the two ten-thousand signs are very probable.1 Followers of Horus.2 The rightmost part is the third row of Champollion's fragment Nn.
Restoration
Helck 1992: 161

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.9 the Turin king list by Helck 1992: 161

their lifetime until the Followers of Horus, 23200 years
ꜤhꜤ sn nfryt(?) r šmsw-ḥr rnpt 23200 (+ x)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 9 a)
2.   Sethe 1905: 3ff.
Column 3.10
the Turin king list 3.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.10 (hieroglyphics)

Kings of the house of (?) The Dual King, Meni, Life, Prosperity, and Health
nswyw pr? nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb ...

 Heading 
GardinerII 10Fragment1
The first row of the papyrus containing the name of a mortal king. The bee-sign is about 1 cm to the left compared to 3.11, and the traces (now lost) ahead of the title seen on the plates of Lepsius and Wilkinson further reinforce that this row contain a heading, serving as an introduction of the kings. There are no other headings until 6.11, but 3 summations, in 4.26, 5.14-17, and 6.10. Either the heading is meant for the first summation in 4.26, or which seems more likely, for the entire period until the next heading in 6.11, as there are no other headings. This also indicate that the Egyptians themselves did not divide this period into ten different dynasties, as per the writings of Manetho. The rightmost part is the fourth row of Champollion's fragment Nn.
Column 3.11
the Turin king list 3.11 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.11 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.11 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Meni, life, prosperity and health, he acted as king for ...
nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb ir.n ...

KingNarmer (1st king)DynastyI (1)
GardinerII 11Fragment1
The first king of the First Dynasty was most likely the archaeologically attested Narmer, who likely united the Two Lands.1 At the time of the New Kingdom, and possibly much earlier, his name seems to have been lost or forgotten, and instead Meni (Menes in Greek) were named as the king who united the Two Lands, whough there are no archaeological finds of a such a king. It cannot be ruled out that Meni was the personal name of Narmer. The rightmost part is the fifth row of Champollion's fragment Nn.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 1mniMeni
Africanus: I (1)ΜηνηςMēnēs (62 years)
Eusebius: I (1)ΜηνηςMēnēs (60 years)
Eratosthenes: 1ΜηνηςMēnēs
1.   Heagy, Thomas C. (2014), "Who was Menes?", Archeo-Nil 24 (2014): 59–92.
Column 3.12
the Turin king list 3.12 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.12 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.12 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Ity ...
nsw-bit ity ...

KingAha (2nd king)DynastyI (2)
GardinerII 12Fragment1
Only the first two signs are readable, while the position of the t-sign leave room for another sign below where the papyrus breaks off, it is lost. It is possible that the lacuna would have held another t, like the corresponding entry in the Abydos Canon, Teti (tti), albeit with the order of the signs reversed. Farina hesitantly transcribed the lost sign as an y (Z4),1 however Gardiner left it out altogether.2 The rightmost part is the sixth row of Champollion's fragment Nn.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 2ttiTeti
Africanus: I (2)AθωθιςAthōthis (57 years)
Eusebius: I (2)AθωθιςAthōthis (27 years)
Eratosthenes: 2AθωθηςAthōthēs
1.   Farina 1938: 22
2.   Gardiner 1959: pl. 1
Column 3.13
the Turin king list 3.13 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.13 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.13 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingDjer (3rd king)DynastyI (3)
GardinerII 13Fragment1
Only tiny traces remain of what is most likely the divine determinative (G7) and the cartouche close, the name itself is completely lost According to the archaeological record, this position would have held the name of king Djer.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 3ittiIteti
Africanus: I (3)ΚενκενηςKenkenēs (31 years)
Eusebius: I (3)ΚενκενηςKenkenēs (39 years)
Eratosthenes: 3AθωθηςAthōthēs
Column 3.14
the Turin king list 3.14 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.14 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.14 (hieroglyphics)

... 10 +x months 28 days ...
... 10 hrw 28 ...

GardinerII 14Fragment20 + 1
The curved line is a sort of bracket around a line that intrude on the next column,1 the numbers on the fragment belongs to a god or demi-god in the previous column. This can also be seen in 5.16, 6.15, and 8.3. The trace before the month-sign is likely a 10.2 There are no traces of any other writing on this line, suggesting it was intentionally left blank.3 Perhaps it should be excluded from column 3 in the future, as suggested years ago.4
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 14 a)
2.   id. Plate 1.
3.   Ryholt 1997: 30.
4.   Beckerath 1995: 225f.
Column 3.15
the Turin king list 3.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Ity ...
nsw-bit ... ittiw ...

KingDjet (4th king)DynastyI (4)
GardinerII 15Fragment20 + 1
The bird sign G4 (tiw) is not to be confused with G1 (),1 as it was on the Abydos Canon. This sign appears nowhere else in the king-list.2
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 4itꜢIta
Africanus: I (4)ΟυενεφηςOuenephēs (23 years)
Eusebius: I (4)ΟυενεφηςOuenephēs (42 years)
1.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 191 and 192.
2.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 15 a)
Column 3.16
the Turin king list 3.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Qenty ...
nsw-bit ḳnty ...

KingDen (5th king)DynastyI (5)
GardinerII 16Fragment20 + 30
In hieratic the sign Aa8 (Aa8, ḳn) could stand for not only itself but also certain other signs.1 Furthermore, it is visually similar and easily confused with N24 (N24, spꜢt) or N25 (N25, ḫꜢst).2 This caused confusion in modern transcriptions, as well as in actual hieroglyphic texts, like the Abydos Canon where the scribe read Aa8 as N24. The name Khasty is attested to king Den,3 and usually read as Khasty (ḫꜢsty), but might also be read as Semty (smty).4 The first row of Champollion's fragment F.
Restoration
Alternative transcription

Hieroglyphic restoration of 3.16 the Turin king list by Alternative transcription

Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 5spꜢtySepati
Africanus: I (5)ΟυσαφαιδοςOusaphaidos (20 years)
Eusebius: I (5)ΟυσαφαηςOusaphaēs (20 years)
1.   Gardiner 1957: 541
2.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, compare No. 322 to No. 604, and possibly also No. 366 (S29)
3.   Petrie, Royal Tombs, I, plate V (8-9, 11-12)
4.   Gardiner 1957: 541
Column 3.17
the Turin king list 3.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Merigeregepen ... 74 years ...
nsw-bit mr-grg-pn ... rnpt 74 ...

KingAdjib (6th king)DynastyI (6)
GardinerII 17Fragment20 + 30
The archaic W10 (W10, bꜢ)1 was misread by the scibe as U17 (U17, grg),2 and further misinterpreted as N41 (N41, biꜢ) in the Abydos Canon, and R7 (R7, bꜢ) in the Saqqara Canon.3 The number of years is certain. The second row of Champollion's fragment F.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 6mry-biꜢ-pMerybiap
Saqqara Canon 58mry-bꜢ-pnMerybapen
Africanus: I (6)ΜιεβιδοςMiebidos (26 years)
Eusebius: I (6)NιεβαηςNiebaēs (26 years)
Eratosthenes: 4Διαβιης Diabiēs
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 17 a)
2.   Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 467
3.   Helck 1992: 163
Column 3.18
the Turin king list 3.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Semsem ... 72 years ...
nsw-bit smsm ... rnpt 72 ...

KingSemerkhet (7th king)DynastyI (7)
GardinerII 18Fragment20 + 21 + 30
A contemporary ivory label of Semerkhet,1 show an archaic figure of a man with a walking stick. The sign is similar to, but not identical to Gardiner sign A19 (smsw). In the Canon, this it is written out with unilateral signs as smsm.2 The first row of Champollion's fragment Dd.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 7smswSemsu
Africanus: I (7)ΣεμεμψηςSemempsēs (18 years)
Eusebius: I (7)ΣεμεμψηςSemempsēs (18 years)
Eratosthenes: 5ΠεμφωςPemphōs
1.   Ivory jar-label, British Museum EA32668.
2.   Helck 1992: 163
Column 3.19
the Turin king list 3.19 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.19 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.19 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Qebeh ... 63 years ...
nsw-bit bḥ ... rnpt 63

KingQaa (8th king)DynastyI (8)
GardinerII 19Fragment20 + 21 + 30
The starting cartouche, and perhaps a sign or two are lost. The number of years is certain. The second row of Champollion's fragment Dd.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 8ḳbḥQebeh
Saqqara Canon 57ḳbḥwQebehu
Africanus: I (8)ΒιηνεχηςBiēnekhēs (26 years)
Eusebius: I (8)ΟυβιενθηςOubienthēs (26 years)
Column 3.20
the Turin king list 3.20 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.20 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.20 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Baunetjer ... 95 years ...
nsw-bit ... bꜢ.w-nṯr ... rnpt 95 ...

KingHotepsekhemwy (9th king)DynastyII (1)
GardinerII 20Fragment20 + 21 + 30
The ink on fr. 21 is faded, making the signs hard to read, but the sign is probably G30 (storks) followed by a determinative. The numbers are certain. The third row of Champollion's fragment Dd.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 9bḏꜤwBedjau
Saqqara Canon 56nṯr-bꜢwNetjerbau
Giza king listbḏꜢ-tꜢwBedjatau
Africanus: II (1)ΒοηθοςBoēthos (38 years)
Eusebius: II (1)ΒωχοςBōkhos
Column 3.21
the Turin king list 3.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Kakau ...
nsw-bit kꜢkꜤ.w ...

KingNebra (10th king)DynastyII (2)
GardinerII 21Fragment20 + 21 + 30
The ink on fr. 21 is faded; the broken sign is likely a w, or less likely a wt1 The scribe omitted the number at the end.2 The fourth row of Champollion's fragment Dd.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 10kꜢ-kꜢwKakau
Saqqara Canon 55kꜢ-kꜢwKakau
Africanus: II (2)ΚαιεχωςKaiekhōs (39 years)
Eusebius: II (2)ΧωοςKhōos
1.   cf. Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 200 and V; Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 21 a)
2.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 21 b).
Column 3.22
the Turin king list 3.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Baunetjer ... 95 years ...
nsw-bit bꜢ.w-nṯr ... rnpt 95 ...

KingNinetjer (11th king)DynastyII (3)
GardinerII 22Fragment20 + 21 + 30
Only the last signs of the name remains, but the numbers are certain.1 The traces of the bee wings of the fifth row of Champollion's fragment Dd.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 11bꜢ-nṯrBaunetjer
Saqqara Canon 54bꜢ-nṯrwBanetjeru
Africanus: II (3)ΒινωθριςBinōthris (47 years)
Eusebius: II (3)ΒιοφιςBiophis
1.   Lepsius, Auswahl, pl. III.; cf.Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 22 a-b)
Column 3.23
the Turin king list 3.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Wadjnes ... 70 years ...
nsw-bit ...-s ... rnpt 70 ...

KingWadjenes (12th king)DynastyII (4)
GardinerII 23Fragment21 + 30
Only the trace of what could be a (S29) s-sign remain of the name and fits well with the last s-sign of the Abydos Canon.1 The 70-sign is certain.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 12wꜢḏnsWadjenes
Saqqara Canon 53wꜢḏ-l-sWadjlas
Africanus: II (4)ΤλαςTlas (17 years)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 23 a)
Column 3.24
the Turin king list 3.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.24 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Senedj ... 54 years ...
nsw-bit snḏ ... rnpt 54 ...

KingSenedj (13th king)DynastyII (5)
GardinerII 24Fragment19 + 30
The number is probably 54, not 74 since the trace of the tens are so close to the four strokes.1
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 13sndiSendi
Saqqara Canon 52snḏSenedj
Africanus: II (5)ΣεθενηςSethenēs (41 years)
1.   Gardiner 1959: 15 (II 24 a); cf. Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 627 (50-sign) vs. No. 629 (70-sign)
Column 3.25
the Turin king list 3.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 3.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Aaka ... 70 years ...
nsw-bit ꜤꜢ-kꜢ ... rnpt 70 ...

KingSneferka (14th king)DynastyII (6)
GardinerII 25Fragment19 + 30
The writing is clearly ꜤꜢ-kꜢ, with the opening cartouche omitted. The ꜤꜢ-sign is obviously a mistake for nfr, which resemble each other in hieratic.1 The Saqqara Canon (no.51) correctly reads the name as nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ. The New Kingdom scribes "corrected" the name Seneferka into Neferkara by exchanging the initial s with the recognizable honorific rꜤ. This was a common practice that made sense to the scribes, as can be noted several times in the king lists.2
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Abydos Canon 19nfr-kꜢ-rꜤNeferkara
Saqqara Canon 51nfr-kꜢ-rꜤNeferkara
Africanus: II (6)ΧαιρηςKhairēs (17 years)
1.   Ryholt 2008: 163-4, note 15; For the signs, see Möller, Hieratische Paläographie II, No. 363 vs. No. 180.
2.   Ryholt 2008: 166ff.

Bibliography

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———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
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———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
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Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
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———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
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Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

Kinglists

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