Turin king list: Column 8

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Column
29 rows — 28 kings.

Twenty-nine rows with the names of twenty-eight kings of the poorly attested kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty. The photos show that the facsimile of Ryholt is slightly incorrect, the fragments having been straightened and/or distorted. It is evident that the numbering towards the bottom of column 8 needs a slight adjustment, which moves the fragments of Ryholt’s row 20 down one row. This does not cause any fibre errors, rather it places the fragments in their correct position.

Table 1: Overview of column 8
RowsRemarksKings
1–28Thirteenth Dynasty (continued)28
29Summation for the Thirteenth Dynasty
Quick reference key
ditto markImplied repeating text (ditto marks) is represented in blue.
missingMissing signs that can be restored are represented in grey.
RedSigns written with red ink are presented in red.
...Signs that are lost or unreadable is represented by 3 dots.
Column 8.1
the Turin king list 8.1 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.1 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.1 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Khahotepra, 4 years, 8 months, 29 days
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḥtp-rꜤ rnpt 4 Ꜣbdw 8 hrw 29

KingSobekhotep VI (109th king)DynastyXIII (25)
GardinerVII 1Fragment81 + 97
For some reason the scribe omitted the second ditto mark (before the number of days). The middle part of the row is Champollion's fr. A.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 46ḫꜤ-[ḥtp]-rꜤKha(hotep)ra
Column 8.2
the Turin king list 8.2 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.2 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.2 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Wahibra Jaib, 10 years, 8 months, 28 days
nsw-bit wꜢḥ-ib-rꜤ iꜤ-ib rnpt 10 Ꜣbdw 8 hrw 28

KingWahibra Jaib (110th king)DynastyXIII (26)
GardinerVII 2Fragment81 + 97
The middle part of the row is Champollion's fr. A, and the end is fr. B.
Column 8.3
the Turin king list 8.3 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.3 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.3 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Merneferra, he acted as king for 23 years, 8 months and 18 days
nsw-bit mr-nrf-rꜤ ir.n f m nswyt rnpt 23 Ꜣbd 8 hrw 18

KingAya (111th king)DynastyXIII (27)
GardinerVII 3Fragment81 + 97
The curved line at the end is a sort of bracket around a longer than usual line that intrudes on the next column, also seen in (3.14), (5.16) and (7.3). The number of years is almost certainly 23.1 The middle part of the row is Champollion's fr. A, and the end is fr. B.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 74; Gardiner 1959: 16 (VII 3 a)
Column 8.4
the Turin king list 8.4 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.4 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.4 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Merhotepra, 2 years, 2-4 months, 9 days
nsw-bit mr-ḥtp-rꜤ rnpt 2 Ꜣbdw 2 hrw 9

KingIni (112th king)DynastyXIII (28)
GardinerVII 4Fragment81 + 97
The partial number between fr. 81 and 97 can be any number from two to four.1 The middle part of the row is Champollion's fr. A, and the end is fr. B.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 192
Column 8.5
the Turin king list 8.5 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.5 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.5 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sankhenra Sewadjtu, 3 years, 2-4 months ...
nsw-bit s-Ꜥnḫ-n-rꜤ s-wꜢḏ-tw rnpt 3 Ꜣbdw 2 ...

KingSewadjtu (113th king)DynastyXIII (29)
GardinerVII 5Fragment81 + 97
The number of months can be from two to four, the number of days are lost.1 The bee part of the title is lost today and only remains in the lithographs of Lepsius and Wilkinson. The middle part of the row is Champollion's fr. A.
Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 38s.wꜢḏ-n-rꜤSewadjenra
1.   Ryholt 1997: 192, 356 (File 13/35)
Column 8.6
the Turin king list 8.6 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.6 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.6 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Mersekhemra Ined, 3 years, 1 month, 1 day
nsw-bit mr-sḫm-rꜤ ind ... rnpt 3 Ꜣbd 1 hrw 1

KingIned (114th king)DynastyXIII (30)
GardinerVII 6Fragment81 + 98
The last two signs in the cartouche are doubtful1, but the nomen is clearly read as ind.2
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (VII 6 a)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 75
Column 8.7
the Turin king list 8.7 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.7 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.7 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Sewadjkara Hori, 5 years ... 8 days
nsw-bit s.wꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ ḥrw-i rnpt 5 ... hrw 8

KingSewadjkara Hori (115th king)DynastyXIII (31)
GardinerVII 7Fragment81 + 98
This row contains an anomaly in that there are two cartouche closes. The ditto marks for months and days, as well as the number of months are lost, but the numbers are certain.1 The fragment with the number at the end is Champollion's fr. Jj.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 192
Column 8.8
the Turin king list 8.8 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.8 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.8 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Merkaura Sobekhotep, 2 years ... 4 days
nsw-bit mr-kꜢw-rꜤ sbk-ḥtp rnpt 2 ... hrw 4

KingSobekhotep VII (116th king)DynastyXIII (32)
GardinerVII 8Fragment86 + 81 + 83 + 98
The traces after the kꜢ-sign are simply traces of the horizontal plural strokes. The divine determinative (G7) following the cartouche close has been left out due to lack of space.1 The fragment with the number at the end is Champollion's fr. Jj.
Restoration
Ryholt 1997: 71, 192

Hieroglyphic restoration of 8.8 the Turin king list by Ryholt 1997: 71, 192

The Dual King Merkaura Sobekhotep, 2 years, x months, 4 days
nsw-bit mr-kꜢw-rꜤ sbk-ḥtp rnpt 2 ... hrw 4

Other sources
SourceCartoucheNameTranscription
Karnak Canon 42mr-kꜢw-rꜤMerkaura
1.   Ryholt 1997: 75
Column 8.9
the Turin king list 8.9 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.9 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.9 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 11 days
nsw-bit ... hrw 11

KingUnknown (117th king)DynastyXIII (33)
GardinerVII 9Fragment86 + 98
The name is lost in lacuna, only a tiny trace of the title and the number of days at the end remain. The fragment with the number at the end (left side) is Champollion's fr. Jj.
Column 8.10
the Turin king list 8.10 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.10 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.10 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ... 3 ...
nsw-bit ... 3 ...

KingUnknown (118th king)DynastyXIII (34)
GardinerVII 10Fragment98
The first row is lost in lacuna, apart from tiny traces at the end. Lepsius facsimile show traces of the figure 2, but traces of a 3 is clearly visible in the photo, as it was read by Gardiner.1 The vertical gap between the bottom of fr. 86 and the top of fr. 87 is 83 mm. The distance between the text from the bottom of 8.9 (fr. 98) to the top of 8.15 (fr. 87) is 76 mm. The approximate average text height in this column is 12 mm, with margins of 2.5 mm between the rows. Allowing for slight variance in the text height and margins, five rows lost in the lacuna is a perfect fit.
1.   Gardiner 1959: pl. 3
Column 8.11
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 8.11 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (119th king)DynastyXIII (35)
The second consecutive row lost in the lacuna.
Column 8.12
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 8.12 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (120th king)DynastyXIII (36)
The third consecutive row lost in the lacuna.
Column 8.13
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 8.13 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (121st king)DynastyXIII (37)
The fourth consecutive row lost in the lacuna.
Column 8.14
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 8.14 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (122nd king)DynastyXIII (38)
The fifth consecutive row lost in the lacuna.
Column 8.15
the Turin king list 8.15 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.15 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.15 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (123rd king)DynastyXIII (39)
GardinerVI 20Fragment87
The horizontal fibres of fr. 87 correspond horizontally with fr. 70, and vertically with fr. 81.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 23
Column 8.16
the Turin king list 8.16 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.16 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.16 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King, Mer ...ra ...
nsw-bit ... mr ... rꜤ ...

KingUnknown (124th king)DynastyXIII (40)
GardinerVI 21Fragment87
Column 8.17
the Turin king list 8.17 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.17 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.17 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Mer-kheper-Ra ...
nsw-bit mr-ḫpr-rꜤ ...

KingUnknown (125th king)DynastyXIII (41)
GardinerVI 22Fragment87
Column 8.18
the Turin king list 8.18 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.18 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.18 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Merkara ...
nsw-bit mr-kꜢ-rꜤ ...

KingUncertain/Unknown (126th king)DynastyXIII (42)
GardinerVI 23Fragment87
The vertical position of fr. 88 is uncertain, but there is a fibre match with fr. 81, which assures the horizontal position.1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 23
Column 8.19
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 8.19 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (127th king)DynastyXIII (43)
The first consecutive row lost in the lacuna.
Column 8.20
  THE PAPYRUS IS MISSING  
the Turin king list 8.20 (papyrus lost, no hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...
nsw-bit ...

KingUnknown (128th king)DynastyXIII (44)
The second consecutive row lost in the lacuna.
Column 8.21
the Turin king list 8.21 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.21 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.21 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...dj...
nsw-bit ... ḏ ...

KingUnknown (129th king)DynastyXIII (45)
GardinerVII 12Fragment82 + 94
The small fragment at the top of fr. 94 is not present in Lepsius, but was added by Farina and presented by Gardiner as one fragment.1
1.   Gardiner 1959: 16 (VII 12 a)
Column 8.22
the Turin king list 8.22 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.22 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.22 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...mes ...
nsw-bit ...-ms ...

King...mes (130th king)DynastyXIII (46)
GardinerVII 13Fragment93 + 94
The F31 sign (ms) is not used in the prenomen of any known king until the Late Period, which make this entry almost certain to hold a nomen. The only known nomen of the SIP that possibly fit is one of the two kings named Dedumose. (Dedumose Djedhotepra, and Dedumose Djedneferra)1
1.   Ryholt 1997: 156f. 358; Allen 1999: 68 n. 17;
Column 8.23
the Turin king list 8.23 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.23 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.23 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...maatra Ibi ...
nsw-bit ...-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ ibi ...

King...maatra Ibi (131st king)DynastyXIII (47)
GardinerVII 14Fragment93 + 94
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1 The first row of fr. 93 is Champollion's fr. X.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 358 (File 13/52)
Column 8.24
the Turin king list 8.24 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.24 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.24 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...webenra Hor ...
nsw-bit wbn-...-rꜤ ḥrw ...

King...webenra Hor (132nd king)DynastyXIII (48)
GardinerVII 15Fragment93 + 95
This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.1 The second row of fr. 93 is Champollion's fr. X.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 73, 358 (File 13/53)
Column 8.25
the Turin king list 8.25 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.25 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.25 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King Se...kara ...
nsw-bit s...-kꜤ-rꜤ ...

King...kara (133rd king)DynastyXIII (49)
GardinerVII 16Fragment93 + 95
A tiny fragment added by Farina complete the cartouche open and add the first two signs of the name. There is no comment about this by Gardiner, but it is quite obvious from Lepsius' edition,1 which only record the cartouche open. This is the only record of this king, there are no other attestations.2 The third row of fr. 93 is Champollion's fr. X and Qbis.
1.   Compare Lepsius, Auswahl, pl. V (bottom of col. VIII) contra Gardiner 1959: pl. III (col. VII, row 16)
2.   Ryholt 1997: 73, 358 (File 13/54)
Column 8.26
the Turin king list 8.26 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.26 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.26 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...qaenra ...
nsw-bit ...-ḳ-n-rꜤ ...

KingUncertain/Unknown (134th king)DynastyXIII (50)
GardinerVII 17Fragment93 + 95
The partial trace before the n is either a p, or more likely a , making the prenomen of Sankhptahi the only king of the period matching the sequence of signs.1 The fourth row of fr. 93 is Champollion's fr. Qbis.
1.   Ryholt 1997: 239
Column 8.27
the Turin king list 8.27 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.27 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.27 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...ra ...
nsw-bit ... rꜤ ...

King...ra (135th king)DynastyXIII (51)
GardinerVII 18 & X 28Fragment93 + ? + 134
Only the initial sign of the name is remain, the rest is lost.The fifth row of fr. 93 is Champollion's fr. Qbis.
Column 8.28
the Turin king list 8.28 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.28 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.28 (hieroglyphics)

The Dual King ...enra ... n ia ...
nsw-bit ... n-rꜤ ... n-iꜢ ...

King...en(ra) (136th king)DynastyXIII (52)
GardinerVII 19 & X 29Fragment134
Gardiner and Ryholt place fragment 134 at the bottom of col. 10, Ryholt has since agreed that both horizontal and vertical fibre corresprondences makes the correct placement at the bottom of column 8.1The sixth row of fr. 93 is Champollion's fr. Qbis.
1.   Allen 1999: 67 n. 3; Ryholt 2004: 137 n. 20
Column 8.29
the Turin king list 8.29 (photo of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.29 (facsimile of the hieratic text)
the Turin king list 8.29 (hieroglyphics)

... kings ...
... nswyt ...

 Summation 
GardinerX 30Fragment134
Possibly the Summation of the Thirteenth Dynasty. The horizontal and vertical fibre correspondences of fr. 134 assure the correct placement at the bottom of column 8.1 According to Manetho, 60 kings ruled from Diospolis for a total of 453 years.2 This row is clearly the last of the column, as the bottom of the fragment is part of the bottom margin of the papyrus.
1.   Allen 1999: 67 n. 3; Ryholt 2004: 137 n. 20
2.   Adler and Tuffin, The Chronography of George Synkellos, 86f.

Bibliography

Allen, James P. 1999. ‘The Turin Kinglist’. BASOR 315: 48–53.
Beckerath, Jürgen von. 1964. Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten. Glückstadt: Augustin.
———. 1966. ‘Die Dynastie Der Herakleopoliten (9./10. Dynastie)’. ZÄS 93: 13–20.
———. 1984. ‘Bemerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus und zu den Dynastien der ägyptischen Geschichte’. Studien Zur Altägyptischen Kultur 11: 49–58.
———. 1995. ‘Some Remarks on Helck’s “Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus”’. JEA 81: 225–27.
———. 1999. Handbuch Der Ägyptischen Königsnamen. 2nd ed. MÄS 49. Mainz: von Zabern.
Farina, Giulio. 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome: G. Bardi.
Gardiner, Alan Henderson. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3d ed., rev. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
———. 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford: Griffith Institute.
Goedicke, Hans. 1956. ‘King ḤwḏfꜢ?’ JEA 42: 50–53.
Griffith, Francis Llewellyn. 1897. The Petrie Papyri: Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob. 2 vols. London: Quaritch.
Heagy, Thomas C. 2014. ‘Who Was Menes?’ Archéo-Nil 24: 59–92.
Helck, Wolfgang. 1956. Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den ägyptischen Königslisten. UGAÄ 18. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
———. 1992. ‘Anmerkungen zum Turiner Königspapyrus’. Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur 19: 151–216.
Kitchen, Kenneth Anderson. 1967. ‘Byblos, Egypt, and Mari in the Early Second Millennium B.C.’ Orientalia 36 (1): 39–54.
———. 1979. ‘P. Turin N.1847, Vso.’ In Ramesside Inscriptions, 2:827–44. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lepsius, Carl Richard. 1842. Auswahl Der Wichtigsten Urkunden Des Aegyptischen Alterthums. Leipzig: Wigand.
Málek, Jaromír. 1982. ‘The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin’. JEA 68: 93–106.
Meyer, Eduard. 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. Berlin: Verl. der Königl. Akad. der Wiss.
Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie. Die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Osnabruck: Otto Zeller.
Murnane, William J. 1977. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. Chicago: Oriental Institute.
Petrie, William M. Flinders. 1900. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty. Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund 18. London: Egypt Exploration Fund.
Redford, Donald B. 1986. Pharaonic King-Lists, Annals and Day-Books. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. ‘Recherches Sur Les Monuments Qu’on Peut Attribuer Aux Six Premières Dynasties de Manéthon’. MIE 25 (2): 225–376.
Ryholt, Kim. 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800-1550 B.C. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
———. 1998. ‘Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla’. BASOR 311: 1–6.
———. 2000. ‘The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-List and the Identity of Nitocris’. ZÄS 127: 87–100.
———. 2004. ‘The Turin King-List’. Ägypten Und Levant 14: 135–55.
———. 2008. ‘King Seneferka in the King-Lists and His Position in the Early Dynastic Period’. Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–73.
———. 2018. ‘Seals and History of the 14th and 15th Dynasties’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 235–76.
Schneider, Thomas. 2006. ‘The Relative Chronology of the Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos Period (Dyns. 12–17)’. In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, 168–96. Handbook of Oriental Studies 83. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
———. 2018. ‘Khyan’s Place in History. A New Look at the Chronographic Tradition’. The Hyksos Ruler Khyan and the Early Second Intermediate Period in Egypt : Problems and Priorities of Current Research, ErghÖJh 17: 277–85.
Sethe, Kurt. 1904. ‘Zur zeitlichen Festlegung der zwölften Dynastie und zur Benutzung ägyptischer Sothisdaten überhaupt’. ZÄS 41: 38–42.
———. 1905. Beiträge zur ältesten Geschichte Ägyptens. UGAÄ 3. Leipzig: Hinrichs.
Wilkinson, John Gardner. 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 vols. London: Richards.
Terms & information

Manetho – An Egyptian priest who wrote Aegyptiaca, “the History of Egypt” in the third century BC, and has ever since been the source for the chronology of the kingdom.

Epitome – Manetho’s original was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the king list.

Fibre correspondence – finding the horizontal and/or vertical position of a fragment by visually aligning the papyrus fibres.

Lacuna – a gap in the papyrus where the text is lost.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Ligature – a combination of two or more signs or letters into a single symbol.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – a cursive form of the hieroglyphic signs and ligatures

Transliteration – To translate hieroglyphs they need to be converted into a readable alphabetic script. This is known as transliteration, and use letters not normally present on keyboards:
Ꜣ Ꜥ ḥ ḫ ẖ š ḳ ṯ ḏ

The Dual King – The title of the king of all of Egypt, also presented as King of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

JSesh – I highly recommend JSesh Hieroglyphic Editor by Serge Rosmorduc, which is the best editor to use for hieroglyphic texts of any kind. It is also completely free.

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