The Turin king list

Papyrus 1874 verso of the Egyptian Museum in Turin, also called the Turin king list, or the Royal Canon of Turin is an Ancient Egyptian papyrus recording the names of the pharaohs and their length of reign. It is written in hieratic, and is the most extensive list of Egyptian kings known and as such is the basis for most of the Egyptian chronology before the New Kingdom.

The Turin king list is the only known genuine king list of Ancient Egypt. It has been misnamed a canon, but it is clearly not a cultic list that only include selected kings, but rather a proper chronological list of kings. To refer to it as a canon is to confuse its real purpose. It was, presumably, intended as a reference aid containing all the rulers of Egypt, with only one criteria: they once ruled the kingdom — including ephemeral and unpopular kings.

The complete papyrus contained the names of 222 kings, but the damaged remains only preserve the names of about 135, most of them incomplete.

Facsimile of the Royal Canon of Turin king-list 2016
Facsimile of the Turin king-list by Peter Lundström 2016


Provenance

The front (recto) side of the papyrus contains an official tax-list, mentioning domains of Ramesses II, suggesting that it was produced during his reign (c. 1279-13 BC.) When the document became obsolete, it was likely put into storage, and at a later date, the back (verso) side was reused for the unofficial king-list, perhaps at a scribe training school.

The origin of the papyrus is unknown, as is the location where it was found. It was buried or hidden for some 3000 years, before being discovered in the early 1800's. What is known, is that the papyrus came into the possession of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul-General of Egypt. As to where and how he acquired it, the stories disagree.

[the Papyrus] was purchased in Thebes almost untouched by Drovetti around 1818, and unintentionally mutilated during his transport of it. The leftovers were acquired by the collection of the Piedmontese government in 1820 and deposited in Museum of Turin, where Champollion saw them in 1824.

(translated) Gaston Maspero, "Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'orient classique". p. 225, note 5

When the papyrus was found by Drovetti, either in 1823 or in 1824, it was apparently complete, and he put it into a jar which he tied about his waist, mounted his donkey, and proceeded to ride into town. The joggling which the jar got along the path was disastrous. When Drovetti opened it the extraordinary document had been reduced to mere scraps which have been arranged and rearranged during the past hundred years, but so much had disappeared in dust on that ride on donkey-back that only the barest outline of the original document remains today.

Herbert E. Winlock. "The rise and fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes". p. 4


It is uncertain if either of the stories are true, but as there is no clear provenance for the papyrus, the archaeological context is irretrievably lost. Drovetti and his agents were known to have a careless conduct with their discoveries, which could explain the damage it sustained. The large collection of antiquities he amassed in Egypt was acquired by the Sardinian king Charles Felix in 1824 and placed into storage in the newly formed Royal Museum of Turin. The collection included 170 papyri, stored in a number of boxes. When opened, it was found that many of the papyri had crumbled into innumerable fragments, which had then become mixed together. The most beautiful and best preserved papyri were taken out and put on display, while the boxes with the remains were put back in storage and left there for the time being.

Reconstruction

As the Drovetti collection was being unpacked, Jean-Francois Champollion was visiting Turin. He examined the papyri collection at length, but the king-list was not among them:

I learned by chance that other fragments exist in the attic where they were relegated as too poor to deserve a better house. However, I insisted on a visit; we pulled the boxes, and the next day I could see, on entering a room I now call the columbarium of the story, a table ten feet in length, completely covered with fragments of papyri, at least half a foot thick.
[...]
This unique papyrus outweighs all others; the loss of the missing parts is regrettable; it is a historical treasure; I recognized a true timeline, a royal Canon, which recalls that of Manetho, and the fragments that I found gave me a list of over a hundred kings.

(transl.) Jean-Francois Champollion, November 6, 1824

As an unknown number of papyri had been stored together, most of them clearly fragile due to their age, the resulting debris would have consisted of an uncountable number of miniscule to medium-sized fragments. When the German scholar Gustav Seyffarth visited Turin in 1826, he found the fragments stored in a huge box at the museum.

The same box had been examined by Champollion two years before, and after having selected one fragment of the same papyrus he authoritatively ordered the curator, Signor Cantu, while the Director of the Museum was in London, to put the rest of the papyrus into the privy! Signor Cantu told me that thus at least two-thirds of the papyrus was lost forever.

The literary life of Gustavus Seyffarth: An autobiogaphical sketch, New York 1886, pp. 20-21

The truth of Seyffarth's statement is doubtful at best, as the two scholars became enemies over how to translate the ancient Egyptian language, and wasted no time slighting the other when they had a chance. Nonetheless, Seyffarth's careful consideration of the fibres and correspondence with the writing on the reverse would prove crucial as he began to arrange the fragments. He diligently sorted through the vast debris of fragments for six weeks, one by one, putting them together as far as possible, and his diligence was rewarded as he found fragments Champollion had missed. It should be noted that Champollion did not try to reconstruct the papyrus per se, he just simply copied the fragments he deemed important.

When the arrangement was as complete as Seyffarth could make it, he used glue and thin strands of paper to carefully join the fragments. He did not publish his reconstruction, but thankfully it was carefully copied by Karl Richard Lepsius who visited Turin in 1835, and published it in 1842 with only minor corrections. Lepsius' edition is exceptionally important as the papyrus has since deteriorated further, from handling, mounting, remounting, etc.. Wilkinson's edition of the papyrus in 1851 is nearly identical to Lepsius, with only a few minor alterations, but most important, also include the tax-list on the recto.

In 1930, the papyrus was remounted by papyrus conservation specialist Hugo Ibscher, and in 1938, Giulio Farina examined the papyrus, making a few minor additions and alterations. His photographs are still the only ones ever published, and unfortunately not of the best quality. The mounting of the papyrus at the Turin Museum is identical to Farina's edition.

Sir Alan Gardiner published a very thorough examination of the papyrus in 1959, which still remain the definitive edition, despite there being no photographs or facsimiles, and only a transcription of the writing in hieroglyphs. In the late 1990's, Egyptologist Kim Ryholt examined the papyrus for his study on the Second Intermediate Period and added much needed information and new positions for many of the fragments, including the insertion of an additional column between I and II.

Since the papyrus is of great importance to scholars, it is unfortunate that the only photographs available are of such poor quality. Hopefully someone will publish high quality photos before the bicentennial of the discovery, which happens in: 7 years, 6 months and 6 days!

Timeline of the Turin king list
DateDescription
~1820The papyrus is discovered somewhere near Thebes, and acquired by Drovetti.
1823The papyrus is bought by the King of Sardinia, and transported to Turin.
1824Champollion visit Turin, find and realise the importance of the papyrus
1826Seyffarth carefully arranges the fragments into a more coherent form.
1835Lepsius make careful copies of the fragments of Seyffarth's arrangement.
1842Lepsius publish facsimiles of the verso.
1851Wilkinson publish the recto.
1881The papyrus is designated inventory number 1874 in the Museum Catalogue.
1930Ibscher remounts the papyrus.
1938Farina publish photos of the papyrus, and adds some newly found fragments.
1959Gardiner publish the definite edition of the papyrus.
1997Ryholt publish his examination of the papyrus, focusing on columns 8-11.

Transmission

It is quite likely that the sources of the Turin King-list were drawn from several documents produced by different scribes at different times during the long history of the kingdom. These old but important documents would undoubtedly have been available to the scribes at the temples and libraries. The inconsistent reckoning of the reigns in the papyrus makes it reasonable that the source for the king list was not one, but at least five different documents. From the contents of the papyrus, these five parts can be divided like so:

 Source A — Dynasties 1–2, recording years, months, days and the age of the king.
 Source B — Dynasties 3–6, recording only years.
 Source C — Dynasties 7–10, recording years, months and days.
 Source D — Dynasty 11, only recording years
 Source E — Dynasty 12, recording years, months and days.

Scribes compiled these sources into a complete king list, probably during the Eighteenth Dynasty, as a vorlage (from the German for prototype or template of a prior version of a text) containing the king-list. Later in the dynasty another copy was made which somehow suffered damage, and from this yet another copy was made with the missing parts marked with the notation wsf, 'lacuna.' The scribe that in turn copied this, assigned six years to kings whose reign were recorded as lost to avoid chronological gaps. This manuscript was in turn copied to a half-size papyrus roll, from which the Turin King-list was copied during the Nineteenth Dynasty.


Ryholt's Table 7
After Ryholt (1997). Table 7, p. 32

Contents of the Turin king list

Both sides of the papyrus are written in hieratic, right to left. Most lines of the verso, yield the name of a particular king, followed by a number of years, months and days ruled. Unlike the other king lists, the Turin Papyrus includes the Hyksos kings, ephemeral rulers, and those only ruling over small territories.

The poor state of the papyrus only allows for a conjectural reconstruction, but by close examination of the fibres, as well as comparing the writing on both sides of the papyrus, the placement of the fragments can be determined with a good amount of certainty. The order, reign-lengths, and even the very existence of many kings would not have been possible to ascertain without the papyrus, as many of them are known only from this papyrus.

There are eleven columns of writing, and it begins by listing gods and demi-gods in the first two columns, and the first part of column three. The list of kings begins in column 3, line 10, and occupies the rest of the papyrus. The number of lines per column increases as the papyrus nears the end, the scribe probably noticed that it was needed to compact the writing to be able to fit all the remaining kings onto the papyrus.

The exact number of lines is uncertain to a degree, as the number of lines can only be estimated for some columns by comparing the size of the signs on the fragments, and approximating how many lines there might be between them, and correlating that with the known reigns and kings.

Determining the number of kings found on the papyrus, we first find the total number of lines in columns 3–11, which is 250. Discarding the demigods of 3/1–3/9, and 3/14 which belongs to column 2, we are left with a total of 240 lines describing the kings. Headings and summations of the dynasties account for another 18 lines, bringing the total number of lines, or kings, to 222. The names on ~87 of those lines are completely lost and can only be inferred or assumed, leaving us with ~135 partial or complete names of the kings.

Column1234567891011
Lines~25~25252626252828303131
Kings--142522212627302730
Headings--1--21--2-
Summations---14211-21

The number dynasties recorded by Manetho does not correspond to the number of divisions in the papyrus, but the general outline is the same. The papyrus has six headings, each comprised of a number of subsections. The first heading is further divided into three parts, corresponding to dynasties 1–5, 6–8, and, 9–10 of Manetho.


§DescriptionColumn / line
1Heading of Dynasty 1 - 103/10
  Dynasty 1 - 53/11 — 4/25
  Summation of Dynasty 1-54/26
2  Dynasty 6-85/1 — 5/13
  Summation of Dynasty 6-85/14 — 5/15
  Summation of Dynasty 1-85/16 — 5/17
3  Dynasty 9-105/18 — 6/9
  Summation of Dynasty 9-106/10
4Heading of Dynasty 116/11
  Dynasty 116/12 — 6/17
  Summation of Dynasty 116/18
5Heading of Dynasty 126/19
  Dynasty 126/20 — 7/2
  Summation of Dynasty 127/3
§DescriptionColumn / line
6Heading of Dynasty 13-147/4
  Dynasty 137.5 — 8/27
  Summation of Dynasty 138/28
7  Dynasty 149/1 — 10/20
  Summation of Dynasty 1410/21
8Heading of Dynasty 1510/22
  Dynasty 1510.23 — 10/28
  Summation of Dynasty 1510/29
9Heading of Dynasty 1610/30
  Dynasty 1610/31 + 11/1 — 11/14
  Summation of Dynasty 1611/15
10  Unidentified Dynasty11/16 — 11/31





Key for the king list:
Missing textImplied meaning of the missing text.
[...]Cannot be transcribed, the text is lost.
░░░Cannot be translated, the text is missing.
G7The G7-sign is used as a determinative for a king's name.


Section 1

Dynasties 1 to 5

Columns 3/10 — 4/26



3/10 : Heading   Gardiner II 10
Heading
Heading

Kings of the house of(?) The Dual King, Meni, Life, Prosperity, Health
nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb [...]

Heading of the first to tenth dynasties.



3/11 : Narmer   Gardiner II 11


The Dual King, Meni, life, prosperity and health. He reigned
nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb irn [...]

The traces of the cartouche end seen in Lepsius is now lost.



3/12 : Aha   Gardiner II 12


The Dual King, Ity
nsw-bit ity [...]



3/13 : Djer   Gardiner II 13


The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

Only traces of a G7-sign and the closing of the cartouche remain.



3/14 : Continuation from previous column   Gardiner II 14
Continuation from previous column
Continuation from previous column

░░ 10 +x months 28 days ░░
[...] 10 hrw 28 [...]

The curve below the writing mean that the numbers on the line belongs to a god or demi-god in the previous column. This happened when the line was longer than the rest of the column (see also 5/16 and 6/15.) The numbering of this row in column 3 is retained for convenience sake, even though it belongs to column 2.



3/15 : Djet   Gardiner II 15


The Dual King, Itiu ░░
nsw-bit [...] ittiw [...]

The bird sign G4 (tiw) is not to be confused with G1 (A). This sign appears nowhere else in the king-list.



3/16 : Den   Gardiner II 16


The Dual King, Qenty ░░
nsw-bit ḳnty [...]

The N25-sign (xAst) was incorrectly interpreted as Aa8 (qn) by the scribe. The corresponding king's name in the Abydos list (no. 5) was also misinterpreted; there as N24 (spAt.)



3/17 : Adjib   Gardiner II 17


The Dual King, Merigeregepen ░░ 74 years ░░
nsw-bit mr-grg-pn [...] rnp.t 74 [...]

The clearly written U21-sign (grg) was derived from an early W10-sign, but interpreted incorrectly.



3/18 : Semerkhet   Gardiner II 18


The Dual King, Semsem ░░ 72 years ░░
nsw-bit smsm [...] 72 [...]

Probably a mistaken interpretation of the archaic figure (see BM EA32668) for a priestly elder figure (smsw) of the Abydos list, which was interpreted as smsm here.



3/19 : Qaa   Gardiner II 19


The Dual King, Qebeh ░░ 63 years ░░
nsw-bit bḥ [...] rnp.t 63



3/20 : Hotepsekhemwy   Gardiner II 20


The Dual King, Baunetjer ░░ 95 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] bꜢ.w-nṯr [...] 95 [...]



3/21 : Nebra   Gardiner II 21


The Dual King, Kakau ░░
nsw-bit kꜢkꜤ.w [...]



3/22 : Ninetjer   Gardiner II 22


The Dual King, Baunetjer ░░ 95 years ░░
nsw-bit bꜢ.w-nṯr [...] 95 [...]



3/23 : Wadjenes   Gardiner II 23


The Dual King, Wadjnes ░░ 70 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-s [...] 70 [...]



3/24 : Senedj   Gardiner II 24


The Dual King, Senedj ░░ 54 years ░░
nsw-bit snḏ [...] 54 [...]

The number is probably 54, not 74 since the trace of the 10's comes so close to the 4.



3/25 : Sneferka   Gardiner II 25


The Dual King, Aaka ░░ 70 years ░░
nsw-bit ꜤꜢ-kꜢ [...] 70 [...]

The writing is clearly aA-kA, with the beginning of the cartouche omitted. The aA-sign is obviously a mistake for nfr, which resemble each other in hieratic.The Saqqara king lists (no.51) has the correct reading of nfr-kA-ra. The honorific -ra was added by NK scribes to many names. For more details, see (Ryholt 2008)



4/1 : Neferkasokar   Gardiner III 1


The Dual King, Neferkasokar ░░ 8 years, 3 months ░░ 10
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ-skr rnp.t 8, ibd 3, hrw [...] 10

The last number at the end is likely 20 or 30.



4/2 : Hudjefa I   Gardiner III 2


The Dual King, Hudjefa, 11 years, 8 months, 4 days, his lifetime being 34 years
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnp.t 11, ibd 8, hrw 4 ꜤḥꜤ-f-m-Ꜥnḫ 34

Also appears in the Sakkara king list (no. 49,) immediately after Neferkasokar and before Khasekhemwy. Hudjefa is a pseudonum that replaced an illegible or damaged name. The years could possibly be 21 instead of 11.



4/3 : Khasekhemwy   Gardiner III 3


The Dual King, Bebti ░░ 27 years, 2 months, 1 day, his lifetime being 40 ░░
nsw-bit bbti [...] rnp.t 27, ibd 2, hrw 1, ꜤhꜤ=f m Ꜥnḫ 40 [...] 7



4/4 : Nebka   Gardiner III 4


The Dual King, Nebka ░░ 19 yearsHis lifetime being?
nsw-bit nb-kꜢ [...] 19



4/5 : Djoser   Gardiner III 5


The Dual King, Djoserit he reigned for the period of 19 years and 1 month, his lifetime being ░
nsw-bit ḏsr-it ir-n-f m-nsi.t rnp.t 19 ibd 1 ꜤḥꜤ=f-m-Ꜥnḫ...



4/6 : Sekhemkhet   Gardiner III 6


The Dual King, Djoserti, 6 years ░░
nsw-bit ḏsr-ti rnp.t 6

For some reason, the rnp.t ahead of the years was omitted by the scribe.



4/7 : Hudjefa II   Gardiner III 7


The Dual King, Hudjefa, 6 years ░░
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnp.t 6 [...]

The preceding stroke, before the cartouche end, is likely a I10-sign (D) but the G1-sign (A) would be missing.



4/8 : Huni   Gardiner III 8


The Dual King, Huni, life, prosperity and health, 24 years, the one who has built Seshem ░░
nsw-bit ḥwni [...] Ꜥnḫ-wḏꜢ-snb rnp.t 24 pꜢ-ḳd-sšm

The sublinear sign could be a I9-sign (f).



4/9 : Sneferu   Gardiner III 9


The Dual King, Snofer(u), 24 years ░░
nsw-bit snfr rnp.t 24



4/10 : Khufu (?)   Gardiner III 10


The Dual King, Khufu, 23 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 23

This line would have held the name Khufu, which was the son and successor of Sneferu. The name is present on the Saqqara (42) and Abydos (21) king lists following Sneferu.



4/11 : Radjedef (?)   Gardiner III 11


The Dual King, Radjedef, 8 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 8 [...]

This line would have held the name Radjedef, who was the son and successor of Khufu. The name is present on the Saqqara (41) and Abydos (22) king lists following Khufu.



4/12 : Khafra   Gardiner III 12


The Dual King, Khafra ░ years ░░
nsw-bit [...] ḫꜤ [...]

This line would have held the name Khafra, which is assured as he was the only king of the Fourth Dynasty who used the N28-sign (xa) in his name, and he succeeded his brother Radjedef. The name is also present on the Saqqara (40) and Abydos (23) king lists, following Radjedef.



4/13 : Baufra (?)   Gardiner III 13


The Dual King, Baka, ░ years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t [...]

This line is generally attributed to Manetho's Bicheris, which is the hellenized rendition of Baka, which was one Radjedef's oldest sons.



4/14 : Menkaura (?)   Gardiner III 14


The Dual King, Menkaura, 28 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 28

The number of years is most likely 18, but as only the bottom part of the ten sign is visible, it could also be 28, or less likely 38.



4/15 : Shepseskaf (?)   Gardiner III 15


The Dual King, Shepseskaf, 4 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 4

Shepseskaf did only rule for a short time and the archaeological evidence points to that his reign did not exceed the four years written here.



4/16 : Thamphthis (?)   Gardiner III 16


The Dual King, Thamphthis, 2 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 2

There is no archaeological evidence for Manetho's king named Thamphthis, whose name might be the hellenized form of Djedefptah.



4/17 : Userkaf   Gardiner III 17


The Dual King, Userkaf, 7 years ░░
[...]-kꜢ-[...] rnp.t 7

There is no I9-sign (f) at the end of the cartouche as there should be for Userkaf, suggesting that the scribe had ortographic problems with some names.



4/18 : Sahura (?)   Gardiner III 18


The Dual King, Sahura, 12 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 12

The son of Userkaf and successor to his father. Attested on the Abydos (27) and Saqqara (33) king lists as the successor to Userkaf.



4/19 : Neferirkara I Kakai (?)   Gardiner III 19


The Dual King, Neferirkara reigned for a period of ░░
[...] ir.n=f m ns(y.t) [...]

Attested on the Abydos (28) and Saqqara (33) king lists as the successor to Sahura.



4/20 : Shepseskara Netjeruser (?)   Gardiner III 20


The Dual King, Shepseskara, 7 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 7

Shepseskara probably usurped the throne and only ruled a few months, but is present on the Saqqara king list (31) between Neferirkara and Neferefra. As the fourth king of the dynasty, he is identified with Manetho's Sisires who is attributed a 7 year reign.



4/21 : Neferefra Isi (?)   Gardiner III 21


The Dual King, Neferefra, X years ░░
[...] rnp.t [...]

Neferefra was the eldest son of Neferirkara and is present on the Abydos (29) and Saqqara (30) king lists. The singular year stroke is in accord with the contemporary evidence that his reign lasted only a year or two.



4/22 : Niuserra Ini (?)   Gardiner III 22


The Dual King, Niuserra, 11+ x years ░░
[...] rnp.t 11 [...]

Only the bottom part of the ten sign is visible followed by a stroke after which the papyrus breaks off. Accordingly, the number could be 11-14, 21-24, or 31-34. Niuserra is found on the Abydos (30) and Karnak (4) king lists.



4/23 : Menkauhor Kaiu   Gardiner III 23


The Dual King, Menkauhor, 8 years ░░
nsw-bit mn-kꜢ-ḥr rnp.t 8 [...]

Also attested on the Abydos (31) and Saqqara (29) king lists, and Manetho's Menkheres is the hellenized form of the name.



4/24 : Djedkara Isesi   Gardiner III 24


The Dual King, Djedu, 28 years ░░
nsw-bit ḏd.w rnp.t 28

Attested on the Abydos (32), Saqqara (28) and Karnak (5) king lists under three slightly different names, with a fourth recorded here. The variations are likely due to lacunae in the original NK official records.



4/25 : Unas   Gardiner III 25


The Dual King, Unas, 30 years ░░
nsw-bit wnis rnp.t 30 [...]

Unas, the last king of the fifth dynasty, is also present on the Abydos (33) and Saqqara (27) king lists, and also present as Manetho's hellenized Onnos.



4/26 : Summation of Dynasty 1-5   Gardiner III 26
Summation of Dynasty 1-5
Summation of Dynasty 1-5

Total of the kings beginning with Meni down to Unas, their years
dmḏ nsi.wt šꜢ mni r-mn [...]



Section 2

Dynasties 6 to 8

Columns 5/1 — 5/17



5/1 : Teti   Gardiner IV 1


The Dual King, Teti, ░ 6 months, 21 days
nsw-bit ibd 6, hrw 21

Teti is present as the successor to Unas on the Abydos (34), Saqqara (26) and possibly Karnak (14) king lists.



5/2 : Userkara   Gardiner IV 2


The Dual King, Userkara ░░
nsw-bit [...]

Userkara is present on the Abydos (35) king list between Teti and Pepi I.



5/3 : Pepi I   Gardiner IV 3


The Dual King, ░░ 20 years
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 20

The reign (or the entire record) was likely interchanged with 5/4 below, correcting the reign for Pepi I to 44 years, which agrees with the archaeological records. (Ryholt 1997, 13-14: 18-19)



5/4 : Nemtiemsaf I   Gardiner IV 4


The Dual King, ░░ 44 years
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 44

The trace just before the '4' is not the top of a 10-sign, but a dot of the hieratic number 40. which is now partly obscured by a piece of transparent tape. (Ryholt 2000, 90, note 15) The reign (or the entire record) was likely interchanged with 5/3 above, making the correct reign 20 years for this king. (Ryholt 1997, 13-14)



5/5 : Pepi II   Gardiner IV 5


The Dual King, ░░ 90 + X years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 90 [...]

This entry can only belong to Pepi II due to the long reign described, as no other king even comes close to this number.



5/6 : Nemtiemsaf II   Gardiner IV 6


The Dual King, ░░ 1 year, 1 month
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 1, ibd 1

Nemtyemsaf II is listed in the Abydos (39) king list as the successor of Pepi II, and by Manetho's Menthesouphis.



5/7 : Netjerikara   Gardiner IV 8


The Dual King, Netjerikara, Siptah, he reigned ░░
nsw-bit ntiḳrti zꜢ-ptḥ irn [...]

The name Netiqerty is a corruption of Netjerikara and was incorrectly assigned to Queen Nitocris in Manetho's epitome, which is evident by the male name of Siptah (Son of Ptah) following the cartouche. The Abydos king list (41) record the successor of Nemtyemsaf II as Netjerkara, which is phonetically similar to Netiqerty. (Ryholt 2000, 93) Furthermore, this line could also have held a lacuna notation that is in itself lost in lacuna, explaining the missing ten kings that appear on the Abydos king list. (ibid. 96-98)



5/8 : Neferkara Pepiseneb   Gardiner IV 9


The Dual King, Neferka, Pepi Seneb ░░
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ ppi-snb [...]

The corruption of Pepi-seneb into Khered-seneb might derive from a lacunae-riddled vorlage, also losing the initial ra-sign. The A17-sign (Xrd, chiild) is followed by the divine determinative, and would be analogous to ppy-snb. A large lacuna might also explain why the name appears out of order on the Abydos king list (51), when it should have occupied no. 41.



5/9 : Neferkamin Anu   Gardiner IV 10


The Dual King, Nefer, ░░
nsw-bit nfr [...]

Attested on the Abydos king list (52) as Neferkamin Anu.



5/10 : Qakara Ibi   Gardiner IV 11


The Dual King, Ibi ░░ 2 years, 1 month and 1 day
nsw-bit ibi [...] rnp.t 2, ibd 1, hrw 1

Attested on the Abydos king list (53) as Qakara Ibi.



5/11 : Neferkaura   Gardiner IV 12
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, 4 years and 2 months
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 4, ibd 2, hrw 1

Attested on the Abydos king list (54) as Neferkaura.



5/12 : Neferkauhor   Gardiner IV 13
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 2 years, 1 month and 1 day ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 2, ibd 1, hrw 1

Attested on the Abydos king list (55) as Neferkahor.



5/13 : Neferirkara II   Gardiner IV 14
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 1 year
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 1

Attested on the Abydos king list (56) as Neferirkara. The Roman numeral II is used to distinguish him from Neferierkara Kakai of Dynasty V.



5/14 : Summation of dynasty 6-8, first part   Gardiner IV 15
Summation of dynasty 6-8, first part
Summation of dynasty 6-8, first part

Total of X kings until Neferkara amounting to 181 years
[...] nsi.w [...] rnp.t 181



5/15 : Summation of dynasty 6-8, second part   Gardiner IV 16
Summation of dynasty 6-8, second part
Summation of dynasty 6-8, second part

6 months, 3 days, and a lacuna of 6 years. Total: 187 years, 6 months, 3 days. Total of kings...
[...] ibd 6, hrw 3, wsf 6, dmḏ [...] nsi.t



5/16 : Summation of dynasty 1-8, first part   Gardiner IV 16
Summation of dynasty 1-8, first part
Summation of dynasty 1-8, first part

...from Meni, their kingship, their years, and a lacuna thereto: 949 years, 15 days,and a lacuna of 6 years
[...] mni, nsi.t=sn, rnp.(w)t=sn wsf [...] ibd 9, hrw 6, wsf rnp.t 6



5/17 : Summation of dynasty 1-8, second part   Gardiner IV 17
Summation of dynasty 1-8, second part
Summation of dynasty 1-8, second part

Total: x kings amounting to 955 years and 15 days
dmḏ [...] rnp.(w)t 955, hrw 15



Section 3

Dynasties 9 and 10

Columns 5/18 — 6/10



5/18 : Name lost   Gardiner IV 18
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King ░░
nsw-bit [...]



5/19 : Name lost   Gardiner IV 19
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King ░░
nsw-bit [...]



5/20 : Neferkara III   Gardiner IV 20


The Dual King, Neferkara ░░
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ [...]



5/21 : Wahkara Khety II   Gardiner IV 21


The Dual King, Kheti ░░
nsw-bit ḫt-iti [...]



5/22 : Senen   Gardiner IV 22
Senen..
Senen..

The Dual King, Senen.. ░░ he reigned ░
nsw-bit snn [...] ir-n.f [...]



5/23 : Neferkara Khety III   Gardiner IV 23
Neferkara
Neferkara

The Dual King, [...] Neferkara ░░
nsw-bit [...] zꜢ? nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ

The first signs of the cartouche are unreadable traces, which Beckerath reads the signs as Xt. And then.



5/24 : Mery.. Khety   Gardiner IV 24
Mery.. Khety
Mery.. Khety

The Dual King, Mery░ Khety ░░
nsw-bit mry [...] ẖty [...]



5/25 : Shed..y   Gardiner IV 25
Shed..y
Shed..y

The Dual King, Shed..y ░░
nsw-bit šd-[...]-y



5/26 : H...   Gardiner IV 26
H...
H...

The Dual King, H... ░░
nsw-bit ḥ [...]



6/1 : Name lost   Gardiner V 1
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░ months ░░
nsw-bit [...] ibd [...]



6/2 : Name lost   Gardiner V 2
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/3 : Name lost   Gardiner V 3
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/4 : Name lost   Gardiner V 4
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/5 : Name lost   Gardiner V 5
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/6 : Name lost   Gardiner V 6
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/7 : Name lost   Gardiner V 7
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/8 : Name lost   Gardiner V 8
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/9 : Name lost   Gardiner V 9
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



6/10 : Summation of dynasty 9-10   Gardiner V 10
Summation of dynasty 9-10
Summation of dynasty 9-10

Total of 18 kings ░░
dmḏ nsw 18 [...]



Section 4

Dynasty 11

Columns 6/11 — 6/18



6/11 : Heading of dynasty 11   Gardiner V 11
Heading of dynasty 11
Heading of dynasty 11

The kings ░░
nsi.wt [...]



6/12 : Mentuhotep I   Gardiner V 12


The Dual King, Wah... ░░
nsw-bit wꜢḥ [...]

Gardiner tentatively restored the first sign as V29 (wAH,) noting it might have been N28 (xa,) but neither restoration fits an Dynasty XI king. Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back from that, this line would have contained the name of Mentuhotep I



6/13 : Intef I   Gardiner V 13


The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back from that, this line would have contained the name of Intef I



6/14 : Intef II   Gardiner V 14


The Dual King, ░░ 49 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] 49 [...]

The partial sign before the 9 is most likely a 40. Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back from that, this line would have contained the name of Intef II



6/15 : Intef III   Gardiner V 15


The Dual King, ░░ 8 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 8 [...]

Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back from that, this line would have contained the name of Intef III



6/16 : Mentuhotep II   Gardiner V 16


The Dual King, Nebhapetra ░░ 51 years ░░
nsw-bit nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 51 [...]



6/17 : Mentuhotep III   Gardiner V 17


The Dual King, Sankhka(ra) ░░ 12 years ░░
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-kꜢ [...] 12 [...]

The darker fragment was added by Farina, so the signs are likely incorrectly drawn, as they were traced from his poor photo.



6/18 : Summation of dynasty 11   Gardiner V 18
Summation of dynasty 11
Summation of dynasty 11

Total of 6 kings who ruled 136 years and a lacuna of 7 years, Total: 143 years ░░
dmḏ nsi.wt ir.n rnp.t 136 wsf 7 dmḏ 143 [...]

The darker fragment was added by Farina, so the signs are likely incorrectly drawn, as they were traced from his poor photo. The seven year lacuna might belong to the last king, Mentuhotep IV, though it only gives 6 kings belonging to the dynasty.



Section 5

Dynasty 12

Columns 6/19 — 7/3



6/19 : Heading of dynasty 12   Gardiner V 19
Heading of dynasty 12
Heading of dynasty 12

Kings of the Residence Itj-tawy ░░
[...] ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwy



6/20 : Amenemhat I   Gardiner V 20


The Dual King, Sehotepibra reigned for ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsyt [...]

All but ending of the name is lost, but Amenemhat I's name conatined -ibra in his name and is known to be the predecessor to Senusret I in 6/21. The traces at the end of the line is undoubtedly correct according to Gardiner.



6/21 : Senusret I   Gardiner V 21


The Dual King, Kheperkara ░░ 45 years
nsw-bit ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 45 [...]

All but the ending of the name is lost, but Senusret I contain a kA in his name and is known to be the predecessor to Amenemhat II in 6/22.



6/22 : Amenemhat II   Gardiner V 22


The Dual King, Nebkaura ░░ 10+X years
nsw-bit nbw-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 10 [...]

The name is lost, but Amenemhat II is known to be the predecessor to Senusret II in 6/23



6/23 : Senusret II   Gardiner V 23


The Dual King, Khapheperra ░░ 19 years ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 19 [...]

The name is lost, but Senusret II is known to be the predecessor to Senusret III in 6/24



6/24 : Senusret III   Gardiner V 24


The Dual King, Nebkaura ░░ 30+X years
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 30 [...]

The name is lost, but Senusret III is known to be the predecessor to Amenemhat III in 6/25



6/25 : Amenemhat III   Gardiner V 25


The Dual King, Nimaatra ░░ 40+X years
nsw-bit ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 40 [...]

The name is lost, but Amenemhat III is known to be the predecessor to Amenemhat IV in 7/1.



7/1 : Amenemhat IV   Gardiner VI 1


The Dual King, Maakherura has reigned for the period of 9 years, 3 months and 27 days
nsw-bit mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsyt rnp.t 9 ibd.w 3 hrw 27



7/2 : Neferusobek   Gardiner VI 2


The Dual King, Sobekneferu(ra), 3 years, 10 months and 24 days
nsw-bit sbk-nfr.w-rꜤ rnp.t 3 ibd 10 hrw 24



7/3 : Summation of dynasty 12   Gardiner VI 3
Summation of dynasty 12
Summation of dynasty 12

Total kings of the Residence Itj-tawy, 8 kings who ruled 213 years, 1 month and 17 days
dmḏ nsi.wt n.t ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwi nsi.wt 8 ir.n rnp.t 213 ibd 1 hrw 17



Section 6

Dynasty 13

Columns 7/4 — 8/28



7/4 : Heading of dynasty 13-14   Gardiner VI 4
Heading of dynasty 13-14
Heading of dynasty 13-14

Kings who came after the children (?) of The Dual King, Sehotepibra, may he live, prosper and be healthy
nsi.wt [...] sꜢ [...] nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb



7/5 : Sobekhotep I   Gardiner VI 5


The Dual King, Khutawyra has reigned for 2 years, 3 months and 24 days
nsw-bit ḫw-tꜢwy-rꜤ ir-[...] nsi.t rnp.t 2, ibd 3, hrw 24

The throne name xw-tAwy-ra written on this line was earlier emended as sxm-ra-xw-tAwy to fit with the king's name written in other sources. However, the correct name is present in line 7/19, and it is now thought that the names were simply interchanged. Ryholt 1997, 316ff. The (corrected) name for this line is Sekhemra Khutawyra Sobekhotep.



7/6 : Sonbef   Gardiner VI 6


The Dual King, Sekhemkara ░░ years ░ lacuna years, 6 years
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnp.t [...] wsf rnp.t 6

The lacuna notation accounts for Nerikara, the successor of Sekhemkara.



7/7 : Sekhemkara Amenemhat   Gardiner VI 7


The Dual King, Amenemhat(ra) ░░ 3 years
nsw-bit i-mn-m-ḥꜢ.t (rꜤ) [...] rnp.t 3

Only weak traces of the start of the cartouche can be read. The number 2 is certain, but a 3 is indicated by the additional trace. There might have been wsf (missing) notation on this line for king Ameny Qemau, which is now itself lost. (Ryholt 1997, 73, 214)



7/8 : Qemau Siharnedjheritef   Gardiner VI 8


The Dual King, Sehotepibra ░░ 1 ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ [...] 1

The correct name is Hotepibra, as attested by all other finds of this pharaoh. The added 'S' was incorrectly added by the scribe.



7/9 : Iufni   Gardiner VI 9


The Dual King, Iufni ░░
nsw-bit iw=f-n=i [...]



7/10 : Sankhibra Amenemhat   Gardiner VI 10


The Dual King, Sankhibra ░░ 23 days ░░
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-ib-rꜤ [...] 23 [...]



7/11 : Nebnun   Gardiner VI 11


The Dual King, Semenkara ░░ 22 days ░░
nsw-bit smn-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] 22 [...]



7/12 : Sewesekhtawy Sehotepibra   Gardiner VI 12


The Dual King, Sehotepibra ░░ 1 (+ x months,) 27 days ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ [...] 1 [...] 27 [...]



7/13 : Sewadjkara   Gardiner VI 13


The Dual King, Sewadjkara ░░ 11 (+x days)
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] 11 [...]



7/14 : Nedjemibra   Gardiner VI 14


The Dual King, Nedjemibra ░░ 7 months ░░
nsw-bit nḏm-ib-rꜤ [...] 7 [...]

The trace of the last sign was read by Gardiner as a probable 9, but since the sign does not end below the line, as a 9 usually does, it was likely a 7. (Ryholt 1997, 74, 192)



7/15 : Sobekhotep II   Gardiner VI 15


The Dual King, Sobekhotep ░░
nsw-bit sbk-ḥtp-rꜤ zꜢ [...]



7/16 : Ranisonb   Gardiner VI 16


The Dual King, Renseneb has functioned in kingship for ░░ 4 months ░░
nsw-bit rn-snb ir.n=f [...] ibd 4



7/17 : Hor I   Gardiner VI 17


The Dual King, Awtibra ░░ 7 days ░░
nsw-bit Ꜣw.t-ib-rꜤ [...] 7 [...]

A possible wsf (missing) notation for one or more kings with missing information might have been found on this line, but if so, it is lost in the lacuna. (Ryholt 1997, 12)



7/18 : Sedjefakara Kay-Amenemhat   Gardiner VI 18


The Dual King, Sedjefa..kara, X years ░░
nsw-bit s-ḏfꜢ [...] kꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t [...]



7/19 : Wegaf   Gardiner VI 19


The Dual King, Sekhemra Khutawy Sobekhotep, X years ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ ḫw-tꜢ.wi sbk-ḥtp rnp.t [...]

The throne name sxm-ra xw-tAwy sbk-Htp written on this line was interchanged with xw-tAwy-ra in 7/5 where the name belongs. Ryholt 1997, 316ff. The correct name for this line is Khutawyra, which is Wegaf's throne name.



7/20 : Khendjer   Gardiner VI 20


The Dual King, Userkara Khendjer, X years ░░
nsw-bit wsr [...] rꜤ ḫnḏr rꜤ rnp.t [...]

The ḫ-signs (Aa1) were misinterpreted as the similar rꜤ-signs (N5).



7/21 : Imy-Ra Mesha   Gardiner VI 21


The Dual King, (Smenkh)kara Imy-Ra Mesha, 4 days
nsw-bit [...] kꜢ-rꜤ imy-r-mšꜤw [...] 4



7/22 : Intef IV   Gardiner VI 22


The Dual King, Sehotepkara Intef, ░░ 3 days
[...] s-ḥtp-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] in.t=f [...] 3



7/23 : Meribra Seth   Gardiner VI 23


The Dual King, Meribra, Seth ░░ 6 days
nsw-bit [...] mr-ib-rꜤ [...] stẖ ) [...] 6



7/24 : Sobekhotep III   Gardiner VI 24


The Dual King, Sekhemkara [Wadjtawy] Sobekhotep, 4 years, 2 months x days ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ [wꜢḏ-tꜢ.wy] sbk-ḥtp rnp.t 4, ibd 1 [...]



7/25 : Neferhotep I   Gardiner VI 25


The Dual King, Khasekhemra Neferhotep, son of Haankhef, 11 years, 1 month ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-sḫm-rꜤ nfr-ḥtp) sꜢ ḥꜢ-Ꜥnḫ=f rnp.t 11 ibd 1

Only a trace of the number of months is visible as the papyrus breaks off. The number might be any number of 1-4.



7/26 : Sihathor   Gardiner VI 26


The Dual King, Sihathor ░░ years ░ 3 days ░░
nsw-bit sꜢ-ḥw.t-ḥr rnp.t [...] 3 [...]



7/27 : Sobekhotep IV   Gardiner VI 27


The Dual King, Khaneferra Sobekhotep░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-nfr-rꜤ sbk-ḥtp [...]



7/28 : Sobekhotep V
Unknown king
Unknown king

░░
[...]

The name is lost, but Sobekhotep V succeeded Sobekhotep IV and was himself succeeded by Sobekhotep VI, which would place his name on this line.



8/1 : Sobekhotep VI   Gardiner VII 1


The Dual King, Khahotepra, 4 years, 8 months and 29 days
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḥtp-rꜤ rnp.t 4 ibd 8 hrw 29



8/2 : Wahibra Jaib   Gardiner VII 2


The Dual King, Wahibra Jaib, 10 years, 8 months, 28 days
nsw-bit wꜢḥ-ib-rꜤ iꜤ-ib rnp.t 10 ibd 8 hrw 28



8/3 : Aya   Gardiner VII 3


The Dual King, Merneferra has functioned in kingship for 23 years, 8 months and 18 days
nsw-bit mr-nrf-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsi.t rnp.t 23 ibd 8 hrw 18



8/4 : Ini   Gardiner VII 4


The Dual King, Merhotepra, 2 years, 2-4 months and 9 days
nsw-bit mr-ḥtp-rꜤ rnp.t 2 ibd 2 hrw 9



8/5 : Sewadjtu   Gardiner VII 5


The Dual King, Sankhenra Sewadjtu, 3 years, 2-4 months ░░
nsw-bit s-Ꜥnḫ-n-rꜤ s-wꜢḏ-tw rnp.t 3 ibd 2 [...]



8/6 : Ined   Gardiner VII 6


The Dual King, Mersekhemra Ined, 3 years, 1 month, 1 day
nsw-bit mr-sḫm-rꜤ ind [...] rnp.t 3 ibd 1 hrw 1



8/7 : Sewadjkara Hori   Gardiner VII 7


The Dual King, Sewadjkara Hori, 5 years ░░ 8 days
nsw-bit s.wꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ ḥrw-i rnp.t 5 [...] hrw 8



8/8 : Sobekhotep VII   Gardiner VII 8


The Dual King, Merkaura Sobekhotep, 2 years ░░ 4 days
nsw-bit [...] mr-kꜢ [...] ḫꜤ [...] sbk [...] rnp.t 2 [...] 4



8/9 : Name lost   Gardiner VII 9
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 11 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 11 [...]



8/10 : Name lost   Gardiner VII 10
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 3 [...]



8/11 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



8/12 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



8/13 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



8/14 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

Fragment 87 is moved up one line from line 15 to 14, affecting lines 8/14 to 8/17. (Ben-Tor 1999: 52, note 19)



8/15 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, Mer ░░ra
nsw-bit [...] mr [...] rꜤ



8/16 : Merkheperra   Gardiner VI 21
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, Mer-kheper-Ra ░░
nsw-bit mr-ḫpr-rꜤ [...]



8/17 : Merkara   Gardiner VI 22


The Dual King, Mer-ka-Ra ░░
nsw-bit mr-kꜢ-rꜤ [...]



8/18 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

░░
[...]



8/19 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

░░
[...]



8/20 : Mentuhotep V
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░dj░░
nsw-bit [...] ḏ [...]

The darker fragment is not present in Lepsius, but was added by Farina and presented in Gardiner as one fragment, The signs on this fragment are likely incorrectly drawn, as they were traced from his poor photo.



8/21 : ...mes
...mes
...mes

The Dual King, ...mes ░░
nsw-bit [...]-ms [...]



8/22 : ...maatra Ibi   Gardiner VII 13
...maatra Ibi
...maatra Ibi

The Dual King, ...maatra Ibi ░░
nsw-bit [...]-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ ibi [...]



8/23 : ...webenra Hor   Gardiner VII 14
...webenra Hor
...webenra Hor

The Dual King, ...webenra Hor ░░
nsw-bit wbn-[...]-rꜤ ḥrw [...]



8/24 : ...kara   Gardiner VII 15
...kara
...kara

The Dual King, ...kara ░░
nsw-bit [...]-kꜤrꜤ [...]



8/25 : Sankhptahi   Gardiner VII 16


The Dual King, ...qaenra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-ḳn-rꜤ [...]



8/26 : ...ra   Gardiner VII 17
...ra
...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...] rꜤ [...]



8/27 : ...en(ra)   Gardiner X 29
...en(ra)
...en(ra)

The Dual King, ...enra ░░ nia ░░
nsw-bit [...] n-rꜤ [...] n-iꜢ [...]

Gardiner and Ryholt place fragment 134 at the bottom of col. 10, but both horizontal and vertical fibre corresprondences makes the placement at the bottom of col. 8 the correct one. Ryholt agreed with this placement. (Ben-Tor 1999: 49-50, note 3)



8/28 : Summation of Dynasty 13   Gardiner X 30
Summation of Dynasty 13
Summation of Dynasty 13

░░ kings ░░
[...] nswyt [...]



Section 7

Dynasty 14

Columns 9/1 — 10/21



9/1 : Nehesi   Gardiner VIII 1


The Dual King, Nehesy ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit nḥsi rnp.t [...] 3 [...]



9/2 : Khakherura   Gardiner VIII 2


The Dual King, Khatira ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ.ti-rꜤ) [...] 3 [...]

The sign ti was most likely an error by the scribe, and should have been the very similar xrw



9/3 : Nebfaura   Gardiner VIII 3


The Dual King, Nebfautra, 1 year, 5 months and 15 days
nsw-bit nb-fꜢw.t-rꜤ rnp.t 1 ibd 5 hrw 15



9/4 : Sehabra   Gardiner VIII 4


The Dual King, Sehabra has functioned in kingship for 3 years, ░░ months and 1 day
nsw-bit s-ḥb-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsi.t rnp.t 3 ibd [...] hrw 1



9/5 : Merdjefara   Gardiner VIII 5


The Dual King, Merdjefara 3 years ░░
nsw-bit mr-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 3+ḫ [...]



9/6 : Sewadjkara III   Gardiner VIII 6


The Dual King, Sewadjkara, 1 year ░░
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 1 [...]



9/7 : Nebdjefara   Gardiner VIII 7
Neb... (lacuna)
Neb... (lacuna)

The Dual King, Nebdjefara, 1 year ░░
nsw-bit nb-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 1 [...]



9/8 : Webenra   Gardiner VIII 8
Webenra
Webenra

The Dual King, Webenra ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit wbn-rꜤ rnp.t [...]



9/9 : Name lost   Gardiner VIII 9
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 1 year, 1(+x) months ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 1 ibd 1 [...]



9/10 : ...djefara   Gardiner VIII 10
...djefara
...djefara

The Dual King, ...djefara, 4 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]- ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 4



9/11 : ...benra   Gardiner VIII 11
...benra
...benra

The Dual King, ...benra ░░ 3 +X years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-bn-rꜤ [...] 3 [...]



9/12 : Awibra   Gardiner VIII 12
Autibra
Autibra

The Dual King, Autibra ░░ missing and 18 days ░░
nsw-bit Ꜣw.t-ib-rꜤ [...] wsf hrw 18



9/13 : Heribra   Gardiner VIII 13
Heribra
Heribra

The Dual King, Heribra, may he live, prosper (and be healthy) ░░ 29 days
nsw-bit hr-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ (snb) [...] hrw 29



9/14 : Nebsenra   Gardiner VIII 14
Nebsenra
Nebsenra

The Dual King, Nebsenra ░░ 5 months and 20 days, missing ░░
nsw-bit nb=sn-rꜤ [...] 5, hrw 20 wsf [...]

The missing king(s) cannot be identified. (Ryholt 1997: 12)



9/15 : ...ra   Gardiner VIII 15
...ra
...ra

The Dual King, ..ra. ░░ 21-24 days ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...] 21 [...]



9/16 : Sekheperenra   Gardiner VIII 16
Sekheperenra
Sekheperenra

The Dual King, Sekheperenra, ░░ 2 months and 1-5 days ░░
nsw-bit s-ḫpr-n-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 2 [...]



9/17 : Djedkherura   Gardiner VIII 17
Djedkherura
Djedkherura

The Dual King, Djedkherura, ░░ 2 months and 5 days ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-ḫrw-rꜤ // rnp.t 2 ... 5 [...]



9/18 : Sankhibra II   Gardiner VIII 18
Seankhibra
Seankhibra

The Dual King, Seankhibra, ░░ and 19 days ░░
nsw-bit s-Ꜥnḫ-ib-rꜤ [...] 19 [...]



9/19 : Nefertum..ra   Gardiner VIII 19
Nefertum...ra
Nefertum...ra

The Dual King, Nefertum..ra, ░░ and 18 days ░░
nsw-bit nfr-tm-rꜤ [...] 18 [...]



9/20 : Sekhem..ra   Gardiner VIII 20
Sekhem...ra
Sekhem...ra

The Dual King, Sekhem..ra, has functioned in kingship for ░░ months ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-//-rꜤ ir.n [...] ns.t [...] ibd



9/21 : Kakemura   Gardiner VIII 24
Kakemu..ra
Kakemu..ra

The Dual King, Kakemura, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit kꜢ-km.w-rꜤ [...] rnp.t [...]



9/22 : Neferibra   Gardiner VIII 22
Neferibra
Neferibra

The Dual King, Neferibra ░░ may he live, prosper and be healthy, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit nfr-ib-rꜤ [...] snb rnp.t [...]



9/23 : I..ra   Gardiner VIII 23
I...ra
I...ra

The Dual King, I..ra, may he live, prosper and be healthy, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit i-[...]-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ-wḏꜢ-snb rnp.t [...]



9/24 : Khakara   Gardiner VIII 24
Khakara
Khakara

The Dual King, Khakara, ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...]



9/25 : Akara   Gardiner VIII 25
Aakara
Aakara

The Dual King, Aakara, has functioned ░░
nsw-bit ꜤꜢ-kꜢ-rꜤ ir.n [...]



9/26 : Hapu   Gardiner VIII 26
Semenenra Hapu
Semenenra Hapu

The Dual King, Semenenra Hapu.. ░░
nsw-bit s-mn-n-rꜤ hp.w [...]



9/27 : Anati   Gardiner VIII 27
Djedkara Anati
Djedkara Anati

The Dual King, Djedkara, Anati ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ Ꜥ-nꜤ-ti [...]

The sign V30 in Gardiner is likely a mistake for O29.
See Ryholt 1997, §2.2.1.5, p. 99



9/28 : Babnum   Gardiner IX 30
...kara Bebnum
...kara Bebnum

The Dual King, ...kara Bebnum
nsw-bit [...]-kꜢ bbnm [...]



9/29 : Name lost   Gardiner IX 31
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



9/30 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost


[...]



10/1 : ...ra
...ra
...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit rꜤ-[...]



10/2 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/3 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/4 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/5 : ...ra
...ra
...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]



10/6 : ...ra
...ra
...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]



10/7 : Senefer...ra
Senefer...ra
Senefer...ra

The Dual King, Senefer...ra ░░
nsw-bit s-nfr-[...]-rꜤ [...]



10/8 : Menibra
Menibra
Menibra

The Dual King, Menibra ░░
nsw-bit mn-ib-rꜤ [...]



10/9 : Djed...
Djed...
Djed...

The Dual King, Djed... ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-[...]



10/10 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/11 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/12 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/13 : Inek...   Gardiner IX 13
Inek...
Inek...

The Dual King, Inek... ░░
nsw-bit ink-[...]



10/14 : Ineb...   Gardiner IX 14
Ineb...
Ineb...

The Dual King, Ineb... ░░
nsw-bit inb-[...]



10/15 : Ip...   Gardiner IX 15
Ip...
Ip...

The Dual King, Ip...░░
nsw-bit ip-[...]



10/16 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/17 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/18 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/19 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/20 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



10/21 : Summation of Dynasty 14
Summation of Dynasty 14
Summation of Dynasty 14

Total: X kings have reigned for the period of ░ years ░░
dmḏ nsi.wt ir.n=sn rnp.t [...]

The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.



Section 8

Dynasty 15

Columns 10/22 — 10/29



10/22 : Heading of Dynasty 15
Heading of Dynasty 15
Heading of Dynasty 15

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]



10/23 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]



10/24 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]



10/25 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]



10/26 : Khyan
Name lost
Name lost

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░ 10(+X) years
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...] rnp.t 10 [...]

The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.



10/27 : Apepi   Gardiner X 20
Name lost
Name lost

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░ 40(+X) years
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...] rnp.t 40 [...]

Of the kings of this Dynasty, only Apepi is known to have ruled for more than 30 years, so this is normally ascribed to him. The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.



10/28 : Khamudy   Gardiner X 21


Ruler of foreign lands, Khamudy ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt ḫꜢmdwi [...]

The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.



10/29 : Summation of Dynasty 15   Gardiner X 29
Summation of Dynasty 15
Summation of Dynasty 15

Total: 6 rulers of foreign lands have reigned for the period of 100+x years ░░
dmḏ ḥḳꜢw-ḫꜢswt 6 ir.n=sn rnp.t 100 [...]

The number 100 was most likely to have been followed by other numbers which are lost. The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.



Section 9

Dynasty 16

Columns 10/30 — 11/15



10/30 : Heading of Dynasty 16   Gardiner X 30
Heading of Dynasty 16
Heading of Dynasty 16

░░
[...]



10/31 : Lost
Lost
Lost

░░
[...]



11/1 : Djehuty   Gardiner XI 1


The Dual King, Sekhem...ra, 3 years ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-[...]-rꜤ rnp.t 3 [...]



11/2 : Sobekhotep VIII   Gardiner XI 2


The Dual King, Sekhemra ░░ 16 ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ-[...] 16 [...]



11/3 : Neferhotep III   Gardiner XI 3


The Dual King, Sekhemra S..░░ 1 year ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ s-[...] rnp.t 1 [...]



11/4 : Mentuhotepi   Gardiner XI 4


The Dual King, Sewadjen...ra ░░ 1 year ░░
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-n-rꜤ-[...] rnp.t 1 [...]

The reading s.wAD-n-ra is preferable to Gardiner's s.anx-n-ra, as there is no horizontal stroke needed for the ankh-sign.



11/5 : Nebirau I   Gardiner XI 5


The Dual King, Nebiriawra, 29 years ░░
nsw-bit nb-iri-Ꜣw.t-rꜤ rnp.t 29 [...]



11/6 : Nebirau II   Gardiner XI 6


The Dual King, Nebitawra ░░
nsw-bit nb-it-Ꜣw-rꜤ rnp.t [...]

The extra 't' was likely a scribal error, and should be a 'r' instead.



11/7 : Semenenra   Gardiner XI 7


The Dual King, Semenenra ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit s-mn-n-rꜤ [...] rnp.t [...]



11/8 : Bebiankh   Gardiner XI 8


The Dual King, Seuserra ░░ 12 years, "missing" ░░
nsw-bit sw-wsr-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 12 wsf [...]

The number of months is noted as missing.



11/9 : Sekhemra Shedwaset   Gardiner XI 9


The Dual King, Sekhemra Shedwaset, X year(s) ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ šd-wꜢs.t rnp.t [...]



11/10 : ...ra   Gardiner XI 10
...ra
...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]



11/11 : Name lost   Gardiner XI 11
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/12 : ...ra   Gardiner XI 12
...ra
...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]



11/13 : Name lost   Gardiner XI 13
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/14 : Name lost   Gardiner XI 14
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/15 : Summation of Dynasty 16   Gardiner XI 15
Summation of Dynasty 16
Summation of Dynasty 16

Total: 5 kings ░░
dmḏ nsy.wt 5 [...]



Section 10

Unidentified Dynasty (Abydos Dynasty)

Columns 11/16 — 11/31



11/16 : User...ra   Gardiner XI 16
User...ra
User...ra

The Dual King, User..ra ░░
nsw-bit wsr-[...]-rꜤ [...]

The name on this line, or 11/17, could belong to Senebkay, whose throne name was wsr-ib-ra.



11/17 : User...   Gardiner XI 17
User...
User...

The Dual King, User.. ░░
nsw-bit wsr-[...]

The name on this line, or 11/16, could belong to Senebkay, whose throne name was wsr-ib-ra.



11/18 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/19 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/20 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/21 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/22 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/23 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/24 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/25 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]



11/26 : ...hebra
...hebra
...hebra

The Dual King, ...hebra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-hb-rꜤ [...]



11/27 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, has functioned in kingship for ░░ 2 ░░
nsw-bit [...] ir.n=f m nsi.t [...] 2 [...]



11/28 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 2 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 2 [...]



11/29 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 4 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 4 [...]



11/30 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 3 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 4 [...]



11/31 : ...enra
...enra
...enra

The Dual King, ...nra ░░ 3 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-n-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 3 [...]



Fragments


There are a number of fragments that cannot be placed with certainty, or had their position changed over time, as more thorough examinations of the papyrus were undertaken.


No. Description
1* This small fragment was attached at the rop right side of fr. 1 in Lepsius, but removed by Farina. Gardiner notes that 'it was rightly or wrongly removed.' (Gardiner 1959: 15, II 0)
2 Unplaced. Gardiner note that it certainly belong to the papyrus, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
4 Unplaced. Gardiner note that it belong to a heading or summation, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
7 Placed in column I as per Gardiner, who also marked it as unplaced, but noted that the position is doubtful. (Gardiner 1959: 17) It most likely belong somewhere in column 1–3.
29 Unplaced. Gardiner note that the recto has a heading in red and that it probably belongs, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
36 This fragment can be found in Lepsius, but shows the recto of the papyrus. Unfortunately there is no hieratic facsimile of the verso available. Joined to fr. 48 in col. 5. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
50 Unplaced. Gardiner note that it is written on a patch, probably from the top of a column, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 18)
59a Unplaced. This fragment was attached to the top right side of fr. 59 in Lepsius, but was moved to the left of fr. 59 by Ibscher or Farina. The position in the same horizontal position indicates that there is a fibre match, but Gardiner noted the position as doubtful. (Gardiner 1959: 16, V 1) I have designated it as 59a.
60 Unplaced. Only a part of the bee and the start of a cartouche. Not commented on otherwise by Gardiner.
66 Unplaced. Left in place by Gardiner, but he notes that it does not belong where Farina placed it. (Gardiner 1959: 17, X 21)
71 This fragment has no fibre correspondence with the surrounding fragments and Ryholt suggests it may be disregarded, while still placing it in col. 7, where I have left it. The placement is clearly to be regarded as uncertain. (Ryholt 1997: 22)
79 Unplaced. This fragment was published in Lepsius where it bridged fr. 78 and 79, but was removed by Farina and Gardiner, as the writing on the recto of the fragment made the placement impossible. Ryholt suggested that the removed fragment could be placed in col. 9 or 10, but this placement is uncertain, as he made no mention of a fibre match with any of the surrounding fragments. (Ryholt 1997: 26)
87 The horizontal alignment with fr. 70 is assured, as is the vertical alignment with fr. 81. However, the exact horizontal position in column 8 is uncertain as there is space available on all sides, and an accurate positon can not be established with certainty. (Ryholt 1997: 23)
88 The placement in col. 7 is assured due to matching fibres. The horizontal position is however uncertain, as there is no immediate match. The placement is of little importance as the fragment only contain the royal titles. (Ryholt 1997: 23)
90 Unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 18, 19)
94* A small piece that is not present in Lepsius, but was added by Farina and presented in Gardiner as one fragment in column 8.
122 Unplaced. Placed in column 10 by Gardiner, it was left unplaced by Ryholt. The placement is of little importance as the fragment only contain the royal titles. (Ryholt 1997: 25)
123* Unplaced. The small fragment at the top of fr. 123 was not present in Lepsius. It was added by Farina, and is also present in Gardiner. Ryholt joins fr. 123 with fr. 101 of col. 9, discarding the addition by Farina without comment. Since the tiny fragment is not present in Lepsius, I have designated it as fr. 123* for now. (Ryholt 1997: 25)
125* Unplaced. The leftmost part of fr. 125 was incorrectly(?) placed in Lepsius as part of the fragment, as was the leftmost part of fr. 127, which belongs above the top of the same fragment, and joins with the left side of fr. 125.
134 Gardiner and Ryholt place this fragment at the bottom of col. 10, but both horizontal and vertical fiber corresprondences makes the placement at the bottom of col. 8 the correct one. Ryholt agreed with this placement. (Ben-Tor 1999: 49-50)
143 Unplaced. Months and days belonging to some unknown reign. (Gardiner 1959: 18)
145 Unplaced.
147 Unplaced. The fragment cannot join with fr. 150 as placed by Farina. (Gardiner 1959: 17, IX 29)

Facsimile


Royal Canon of Turin papyrus N. 1874 verso by Peter Lundström 2016. Press ENTER for full image.

Turin papyrus N. 1874 verso

Peter Lundström 2016
This facsimile was created from the plates of Lepsius (1842).
Note: Very large image.     Size: 8000x2167 (1 Mb)


Bibliography


  • Ben-Tor, Daphna, et. al. 1999. "Seals and Kings", Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 315: 47–74
  • Birch, Samuel. 1843. "Observations upon the hieratical canon of Egyptian kings at Turin.", Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, Ser. 2, Vol. 1: 203-8
  • Bunsen, Christian C. J. 1845. "Aegyptens Stelle in der Weltgeschichte.", Vol. 1: 82-83. Hamburg.
  • Champollion, Jean-François. 1824. "Papyrus Égyptien", Bulletin des sciences historiques, antiquités, philologie 2, Article no. 292: 297–303. Paris.
  • Champollion-Figeac, J. J. 1851. "De la table manuelle des Rois et des dynasties d'Égypte ou papyrus royal de Turin". Revue Archéologique 7, No. 2: 397–402, 461–472, 589–599, 653–665.
  • 1882. Regio Museo di Torino, Catalogo generale dei Musei di Antichità. 239. Turin.
  • . 1938. Il Papiro dei re, restaurato. Rome.
  • . 1959. The Royal Canon of Turin. Oxford.
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  • 1865. Manetho und der Turiner Königspapyrus. Munich.
  • . 1842. Auswahl der wichtigsten Urkunden des aegyptischen Alterthums. Plates 3–6. Leipzig
  • Málek, Jaromír. 1982. "The Original Version of the Royal Canon of Turin", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 68: 93-106.
  • . 1895. Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'orient classique. 225-6, note 5. Paris.
  • . 1904. Aegyptische Chronologie. 106ff. Berlin
  • . 1986. Pharaonic King-lists, Annals and Day-books. Mississauga
  • Rougé, Emmanuel de. 1866. "Recherches sur les monuments qu'on peut attribuer aux six premières dynasties de Manéthon", Mémoires de l'Institut national de France 25.2: 225–376, pl. 3. Paris.
  • . 1997. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Copenhagen
  • Ryholt, Kim. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris", ZÄS 127: 87–100
  • Ryholt, Kim. 2004. "The Turin King-list", Egypt and the Levant 14: 135–155. Vienna.
  • Ryholt, Kim. 2008. "King Seneferka in the king-lists and his position in the early dynastic period", Journal of Egyptian History 1: 159–173. Leiden
  • Seyffarth, Gustav. 1828. "Remarks upon an Egyptian History, in Egyptian Characters, in the Royal Museum at Turin", The London Literary Gazette, No. 600. July 19, 1828. 457–59
  • Seyffarth, Gustav and Knortz, Karl. 1886. The literary life of Gustavus Seyffarth. New York: E. Steiger & Co.
  • . 1851. The Fragments of the Hieratic Papyrus at Turin. 2 Vols. London.
  • 1947. The rise and fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes. p. 4


 

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