Papyrus 1874 verso of the Egyptian Museum in Turin, also called the Turin king list, or the Royal Canon of Turin is an Ancient Egyptian papyrus recording the names of the pharaohs and their length of reign. It is written in hieratic, and is the most extensive list of Egyptian kings known and as such is the basis for most of the Egyptian chronology before the New Kingdom.
The Turin king list is the only known genuine king list of Ancient Egypt. It has been misnamed a canon, but it is clearly not a cultic list that only include selected kings, but rather a proper chronological list of kings. To refer to it as a canon is to confuse its real purpose. It was, presumably, intended as a reference aid containing all the rulers of Egypt, with only one criteria: they once ruled the kingdom — including ephemeral and unpopular kings.
The complete papyrus contained the names of 222 kings, but the damaged remains only preserve the names of about 135, most of them incomplete.
The front (recto) side of the papyrus contains an official tax-list, mentioning domains of Ramesses II, suggesting that it was produced during his reign (c. 1279-13 BC.) When the document became obsolete, it was likely put into storage, and at a later date, the back (verso) side was reused for the unofficial king-list, perhaps at a scribe training school.
The origin of the papyrus is unknown, as is the location where it was found. It was buried or hidden for some 3000 years, before being discovered in the early 1800's. What is known, is that the papyrus came into the possession of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul-General of Egypt. As to where and how he acquired it, the stories disagree.
[the Papyrus] was purchased in Thebes almost untouched by Drovetti around 1818, and unintentionally mutilated during his transport of it. The leftovers were acquired by the collection of the Piedmontese government in 1820 and deposited in Museum of Turin, where Champollion saw them in 1824.
(translated) Gaston Maspero, "Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'orient classique". p. 225, note 5
When the papyrus was found by Drovetti, either in 1823 or in 1824, it was apparently complete, and he put it into a jar which he tied about his waist, mounted his donkey, and proceeded to ride into town. The joggling which the jar got along the path was disastrous. When Drovetti opened it the extraordinary document had been reduced to mere scraps which have been arranged and rearranged during the past hundred years, but so much had disappeared in dust on that ride on donkey-back that only the barest outline of the original document remains today.
Herbert E. Winlock. "The rise and fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes". p. 4
As the Drovetti collection was being unpacked, Jean-Francois Champollion was visiting Turin. He examined the papyri collection at length, but the king-list was not among them:
I learned by chance that other fragments exist in the attic where they were relegated as too poor to deserve a better house. However, I insisted on a visit; we pulled the boxes, and the next day I could see, on entering a room I now call the columbarium of the story, a table ten feet in length, completely covered with fragments of papyri, at least half a foot thick.
(transl.) Jean-Francois Champollion, November 6, 1824
[...]
This unique papyrus outweighs all others; the loss of the missing parts is regrettable; it is a historical treasure; I recognized a true timeline, a royal Canon, which recalls that of Manetho, and the fragments that I found gave me a list of over a hundred kings.
As an unknown number of papyri had been stored together, most of them clearly fragile due to their age, the resulting debris would have consisted of an uncountable number of miniscule to medium-sized fragments. When the German scholar Gustav Seyffarth visited Turin in 1826, he found the fragments stored in a huge box at the museum.
The same box had been examined by Champollion two years before, and after having selected one fragment of the same papyrus he authoritatively ordered the curator, Signor Cantu, while the Director of the Museum was in London, to put the rest of the papyrus into the privy! Signor Cantu told me that thus at least two-thirds of the papyrus was lost forever.
The literary life of Gustavus Seyffarth: An autobiogaphical sketch, New York 1886, pp. 20-21
The truth of Seyffarth's statement is doubtful at best, as the two scholars became enemies over how to translate the ancient Egyptian language, and wasted no time slighting the other when they had a chance. Nonetheless, Seyffarth's careful consideration of the fibres and correspondence with the writing on the reverse would prove crucial as he began to arrange the fragments. He diligently sorted through the vast debris of fragments for six weeks, one by one, putting them together as far as possible, and his diligence was rewarded as he found fragments Champollion had missed. It should be noted that Champollion did not try to reconstruct the papyrus per se, he just simply copied the fragments he deemed important.
When the arrangement was as complete as Seyffarth could make it, he used glue and thin strands of paper to carefully join the fragments. He did not publish his reconstruction, but thankfully it was carefully copied by Karl Richard Lepsius who visited Turin in 1835, and published it in 1842 with only minor corrections. Lepsius' edition is exceptionally important as the papyrus has since deteriorated further, from handling, mounting, remounting, etc.. Wilkinson's edition of the papyrus in 1851 is nearly identical to Lepsius, with only a few minor alterations, but most important, also include the tax-list on the recto.
In 1930, the papyrus was remounted by papyrus conservation specialist Hugo Ibscher, and in 1938, Giulio Farina examined the papyrus, making a few minor additions and alterations. His photographs are still the only ones ever published, and unfortunately not of the best quality. The mounting of the papyrus at the Turin Museum is identical to Farina's edition.
Sir Alan Gardiner published a very thorough examination of the papyrus in 1959, which still remain the definitive edition, despite there being no photographs or facsimiles, and only a transcription of the writing in hieroglyphs. In the late 1990's, Egyptologist Kim Ryholt examined the papyrus for his study on the Second Intermediate Period and added much needed information and new positions for many of the fragments, including the insertion of an additional column between I and II.
Since the papyrus is of great importance to scholars, it is unfortunate that the only photographs available are of such poor quality. Hopefully someone will publish high quality photos before the bicentennial of the discovery, which happens in: 7 years, 6 months and 6 days!
Date | Description |
---|---|
~1820 | The papyrus is discovered somewhere near Thebes, and acquired by Drovetti. |
1823 | The papyrus is bought by the King of Sardinia, and transported to Turin. |
1824 | Champollion visit Turin, find and realise the importance of the papyrus |
1826 | Seyffarth carefully arranges the fragments into a more coherent form. |
1835 | Lepsius make careful copies of the fragments of Seyffarth's arrangement. |
1842 | Lepsius publish facsimiles of the verso. |
1851 | Wilkinson publish the recto. |
1881 | The papyrus is designated inventory number 1874 in the Museum Catalogue. |
1930 | Ibscher remounts the papyrus. |
1938 | Farina publish photos of the papyrus, and adds some newly found fragments. |
1959 | Gardiner publish the definite edition of the papyrus. |
1997 | Ryholt publish his examination of the papyrus, focusing on columns 8-11. |
It is quite likely that the sources of the Turin King-list were drawn from several documents produced by different scribes at different times during the long history of the kingdom. These old but important documents would undoubtedly have been available to the scribes at the temples and libraries. The inconsistent reckoning of the reigns in the papyrus makes it reasonable that the source for the king list was not one, but at least five different documents. From the contents of the papyrus, these five parts can be divided like so:
Source A — Dynasties 1–2, recording years, months, days and the age of the king.
Source B — Dynasties 3–6, recording only years.
Source C — Dynasties 7–10, recording years, months and days.
Source D — Dynasty 11, only recording years
Source E — Dynasty 12, recording years, months and days.
Scribes compiled these sources into a complete king list, probably during the Eighteenth Dynasty, as a vorlage (from the German for prototype or template of a prior version of a text) containing the king-list.
Later in the dynasty another copy was made which somehow suffered damage, and from this yet another copy
was made with the missing parts marked with the notation wsf, 'lacuna.'
The scribe that in turn copied this, assigned six years to kings whose reign were recorded as lost to avoid chronological gaps.
This manuscript was in turn copied to a half-size papyrus roll, from which the Turin King-list was copied during the Nineteenth Dynasty.
Both sides of the papyrus are written in hieratic, right to left. Most lines of the verso, yield the name of a particular king, followed by a number of years, months and days ruled. Unlike the other king lists, the Turin Papyrus includes the Hyksos kings, ephemeral rulers, and those only ruling over small territories.
The poor state of the papyrus only allows for a conjectural reconstruction, but by close examination of the fibres, as well as comparing the writing on both sides of the papyrus, the placement of the fragments can be determined with a good amount of certainty. The order, reign-lengths, and even the very existence of many kings would not have been possible to ascertain without the papyrus, as many of them are known only from this papyrus.
There are eleven columns of writing, and it begins by listing gods and demi-gods in the first two columns, and the first part of column three. The list of kings begins in column 3, line 10, and occupies the rest of the papyrus. The number of lines per column increases as the papyrus nears the end, the scribe probably noticed that it was needed to compact the writing to be able to fit all the remaining kings onto the papyrus.
The exact number of lines is uncertain to a degree, as the number of lines can only be estimated for some columns by comparing the size of the signs on the fragments, and approximating how many lines there might be between them, and correlating that with the known reigns and kings.
Determining the number of kings found on the papyrus, we first find the total number of lines in columns 3–11, which is 250. Discarding the demigods of 3/1–3/9, and 3/14 which belongs to column 2, we are left with a total of 240 lines describing the kings. Headings and summations of the dynasties account for another 18 lines, bringing the total number of lines, or kings, to 222. The names on ~87 of those lines are completely lost and can only be inferred or assumed, leaving us with ~135 partial or complete names of the kings.
Column | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lines | ~25 | ~25 | 25 | 26 | 26 | 25 | 28 | 28 | 30 | 31 | 31 |
Kings | - | - | 14 | 25 | 22 | 21 | 26 | 27 | 30 | 27 | 30 |
Headings | - | - | 1 | - | - | 2 | 1 | - | - | 2 | - |
Summations | - | - | - | 1 | 4 | 2 | 1 | 1 | - | 2 | 1 |
The number dynasties recorded by Manetho does not correspond to the number of divisions in the papyrus, but the general outline is the same. The papyrus has six headings, each comprised of a number of subsections. The first heading is further divided into three parts, corresponding to dynasties 1–5, 6–8, and, 9–10 of Manetho.
§ | Description | Column / line |
---|---|---|
1 | Heading of Dynasty 1 - 10 | 3/10 |
Dynasty 1 - 5 | 3/11 — 4/25 | |
Summation of Dynasty 1-5 | 4/26 | |
2 | Dynasty 6-8 | 5/1 — 5/13 |
Summation of Dynasty 6-8 | 5/14 — 5/15 | |
Summation of Dynasty 1-8 | 5/16 — 5/17 | |
3 | Dynasty 9-10 | 5/18 — 6/9 |
Summation of Dynasty 9-10 | 6/10 | |
4 | Heading of Dynasty 11 | 6/11 |
Dynasty 11 | 6/12 — 6/17 | |
Summation of Dynasty 11 | 6/18 | |
5 | Heading of Dynasty 12 | 6/19 |
Dynasty 12 | 6/20 — 7/2 | |
Summation of Dynasty 12 | 7/3 |
§ | Description | Column / line |
---|---|---|
6 | Heading of Dynasty 13-14 | 7/4 |
Dynasty 13 | 7.5 — 8/27 | |
Summation of Dynasty 13 | 8/28 | |
7 | Dynasty 14 | 9/1 — 10/20 |
Summation of Dynasty 14 | 10/21 | |
8 | Heading of Dynasty 15 | 10/22 |
Dynasty 15 | 10.23 — 10/28 | |
Summation of Dynasty 15 | 10/29 | |
9 | Heading of Dynasty 16 | 10/30 |
Dynasty 16 | 10/31 + 11/1 — 11/14 | |
Summation of Dynasty 16 | 11/15 | |
10 | Unidentified Dynasty | 11/16 — 11/31 |
Key for the king list: | |
---|---|
Missing text | Implied meaning of the missing text. |
[...] | Cannot be transcribed, the text is lost. |
░░░ | Cannot be translated, the text is missing. |
The G7-sign is used as a determinative for a king's name. |
Columns 3/10 — 4/26
Kings of the house of(?) The Dual King, Meni, Life, Prosperity, Health
nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb [...]
The Dual King, Meni, life, prosperity and health. He reigned ░
nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb irn [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
░░ 10 +x months 28 days ░░
[...] 10 hrw 28 [...]
The Dual King, Itiu ░░
nsw-bit [...] ittiw [...]
The Dual King, Qenty ░░
nsw-bit ḳnty [...]
The Dual King, Merigeregepen ░░ 74 years ░░
nsw-bit mr-grg-pn [...] rnp.t 74 [...]
The Dual King, Semsem ░░ 72 years ░░
nsw-bit smsm [...] 72 [...]
The Dual King, Baunetjer ░░ 95 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] bꜢ.w-nṯr [...] 95 [...]
The Dual King, Baunetjer ░░ 95 years ░░
nsw-bit bꜢ.w-nṯr [...] 95 [...]
The Dual King, Senedj ░░ 54 years ░░
nsw-bit snḏ [...] 54 [...]
The Dual King, Aaka ░░ 70 years ░░
nsw-bit ꜤꜢ-kꜢ [...] 70 [...]
The Dual King, Neferkasokar ░░ 8 years, 3 months ░░ 10
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ-skr rnp.t 8, ibd 3, hrw [...] 10
The Dual King, Hudjefa, 11 years, 8 months, 4 days, his lifetime being 34 years
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnp.t 11, ibd 8, hrw 4 ꜤḥꜤ-f-m-Ꜥnḫ 34
The Dual King, Bebti ░░ 27 years, 2 months, 1 day, his lifetime being 40 ░░
nsw-bit bbti [...] rnp.t 27, ibd 2, hrw 1, ꜤhꜤ=f m Ꜥnḫ 40 [...] 7
The Dual King, Nebka ░░ 19 years ░ His lifetime being?
nsw-bit nb-kꜢ [...] 19
The Dual King, Djoserit he reigned for the period of 19 years and 1 month, his lifetime being ░
nsw-bit ḏsr-it ir-n-f m-nsi.t rnp.t 19 ibd 1 ꜤḥꜤ=f-m-Ꜥnḫ...
The Dual King, Djoserti, 6 years ░░
nsw-bit ḏsr-ti rnp.t 6
The Dual King, Hudjefa, 6 years ░░
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnp.t 6 [...]
The Dual King, Huni, life, prosperity and health, 24 years, the one who has built Seshem ░░
nsw-bit ḥwni [...] Ꜥnḫ-wḏꜢ-snb rnp.t 24 pꜢ-ḳd-sšm
The Dual King, Khufu, 23 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 23
The Dual King, Radjedef, 8 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 8 [...]
The Dual King, Khafra ░ years ░░
nsw-bit [...] ḫꜤ [...]
The Dual King, Baka, ░ years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Menkaura, 28 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 28
The Dual King, Shepseskaf, 4 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 4
The Dual King, Thamphthis, 2 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 2
The Dual King, Userkaf, 7 years ░░
[...]-kꜢ-[...] rnp.t 7
The Dual King, Sahura, 12 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 12
The Dual King, Neferirkara reigned for a period of ░░
[...] ir.n=f m ns(y.t) [...]
The Dual King, Shepseskara, 7 years ░░
[...] rnp.t 7
The Dual King, Neferefra, X years ░░
[...] rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Niuserra, 11+ x years ░░
[...] rnp.t 11 [...]
The Dual King, Menkauhor, 8 years ░░
nsw-bit mn-kꜢ-ḥr rnp.t 8 [...]
The Dual King, Djedu, 28 years ░░
nsw-bit ḏd.w rnp.t 28
The Dual King, Unas, 30 years ░░
nsw-bit wnis rnp.t 30 [...]
Total of the kings beginning with Meni down to Unas, their years ░
dmḏ nsi.wt šꜢ mni r-mn [...]
Columns 5/1 — 5/17
The Dual King, Teti, ░ 6 months, 21 days
nsw-bit ibd 6, hrw 21
The Dual King, Userkara ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 20 years
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 20
The Dual King, ░░ 44 years
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 44
The Dual King, ░░ 90 + X years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 90 [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 1 year, 1 month
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 1, ibd 1
The Dual King, Netjerikara, Siptah, he reigned ░░
nsw-bit ntiḳrti zꜢ-ptḥ irn [...]
The Dual King, Neferka, Pepi Seneb ░░
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ ppi-snb [...]
The Dual King, Nefer, ░░
nsw-bit nfr [...]
The Dual King, Ibi ░░ 2 years, 1 month and 1 day
nsw-bit ibi [...] rnp.t 2, ibd 1, hrw 1
The Dual King, 4 years and 2 months
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 4, ibd 2, hrw 1
The Dual King, ░░ 2 years, 1 month and 1 day ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 2, ibd 1, hrw 1
The Dual King, ░░ 1 year
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 1
Total of X kings until Neferkara amounting to 181 years
[...] nsi.w [...] rnp.t 181
6 months, 3 days, and a lacuna of 6 years. Total: 187 years, 6 months, 3 days. Total of kings...
[...] ibd 6, hrw 3, wsf 6, dmḏ [...] nsi.t
...from Meni, their kingship, their years, and a lacuna thereto: 949 years, 15 days,and a lacuna of 6 years
[...] mni, nsi.t=sn, rnp.(w)t=sn wsf [...] ibd 9, hrw 6, wsf rnp.t 6
Total: x kings amounting to 955 years and 15 days
dmḏ [...] rnp.(w)t 955, hrw 15
Columns 5/18 — 6/10
The Dual King ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, [...] Neferkara ░░
nsw-bit [...] zꜢ? nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
The Dual King, Mery░ Khety ░░
nsw-bit mry [...] ẖty [...]
The Dual King, Shed..y ░░
nsw-bit šd-[...]-y
The Dual King, H... ░░
nsw-bit ḥ [...]
The Dual King, ░ months ░░
nsw-bit [...] ibd [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
Total of 18 kings ░░
dmḏ nsw 18 [...]
Columns 6/11 — 6/18
The kings ░░
nsi.wt [...]
The Dual King, Wah... ░░
nsw-bit wꜢḥ [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 49 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] 49 [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 8 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 8 [...]
The Dual King, Nebhapetra ░░ 51 years ░░
nsw-bit nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 51 [...]
The Dual King, Sankhka(ra) ░░ 12 years ░░
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-kꜢ [...] 12 [...]
Total of 6 kings who ruled 136 years and a lacuna of 7 years, Total: 143 years ░░
dmḏ nsi.wt ir.n rnp.t 136 wsf 7 dmḏ 143 [...]
Columns 6/19 — 7/3
Kings of the Residence Itj-tawy ░░
[...] ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwy
The Dual King, Sehotepibra reigned for ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsyt [...]
The Dual King, Kheperkara ░░ 45 years
nsw-bit ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 45 [...]
The Dual King, Nebkaura ░░ 10+X years
nsw-bit nbw-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 10 [...]
The Dual King, Khapheperra ░░ 19 years ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 19 [...]
The Dual King, Nebkaura ░░ 30+X years
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 30 [...]
The Dual King, Nimaatra ░░ 40+X years
nsw-bit ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 40 [...]
The Dual King, Maakherura has reigned for the period of 9 years, 3 months and 27 days
nsw-bit mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsyt rnp.t 9 ibd.w 3 hrw 27
The Dual King, Sobekneferu(ra), 3 years, 10 months and 24 days
nsw-bit sbk-nfr.w-rꜤ rnp.t 3 ibd 10 hrw 24
Total kings of the Residence Itj-tawy, 8 kings who ruled 213 years, 1 month and 17 days
dmḏ nsi.wt n.t ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwi nsi.wt 8 ir.n rnp.t 213 ibd 1 hrw 17
Columns 7/4 — 8/28
Kings who came after the children (?) of The Dual King, Sehotepibra, may he live, prosper and be healthy
nsi.wt [...] sꜢ [...] nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb
The Dual King, Khutawyra has reigned for 2 years, 3 months and 24 days
nsw-bit ḫw-tꜢwy-rꜤ ir-[...] nsi.t rnp.t 2, ibd 3, hrw 24
The Dual King, Sekhemkara ░░ years ░ lacuna years, 6 years
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnp.t [...] wsf rnp.t 6
The Dual King, Amenemhat(ra) ░░ 3 years
nsw-bit i-mn-m-ḥꜢ.t (rꜤ) [...] rnp.t 3
The Dual King, Sehotepibra ░░ 1 ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ [...] 1
The Dual King, Sankhibra ░░ 23 days ░░
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-ib-rꜤ [...] 23 [...]
The Dual King, Sehotepibra ░░ 1 (+ x months,) 27 days ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ [...] 1 [...] 27 [...]
The Dual King, Sewadjkara ░░ 11 (+x days)
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] 11 [...]
The Dual King, Nedjemibra ░░ 7 months ░░
nsw-bit nḏm-ib-rꜤ [...] 7 [...]
The Dual King, Renseneb has functioned in kingship for ░░ 4 months ░░
nsw-bit rn-snb ir.n=f [...] ibd 4
The Dual King, Awtibra ░░ 7 days ░░
nsw-bit Ꜣw.t-ib-rꜤ [...] 7 [...]
The Dual King, Sedjefa..kara, X years ░░
nsw-bit s-ḏfꜢ [...] kꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Sekhemra Khutawy Sobekhotep, X years ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ ḫw-tꜢ.wi sbk-ḥtp rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Userkara Khendjer, X years ░░
nsw-bit wsr [...] rꜤ ḫnḏr rꜤ rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, (Smenkh)kara Imy-Ra Mesha, 4 days
nsw-bit [...] kꜢ-rꜤ imy-r-mšꜤw [...] 4
The Dual King, Sehotepkara Intef, ░░ 3 days
[...] s-ḥtp-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] in.t=f [...] 3
The Dual King, Meribra, Seth ░░ 6 days
nsw-bit [...] mr-ib-rꜤ [...] stẖ ) [...] 6
The Dual King, Sekhemkara [Wadjtawy] Sobekhotep, 4 years, 2 months x days ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ [wꜢḏ-tꜢ.wy] sbk-ḥtp rnp.t 4, ibd 1 [...]
The Dual King, Khasekhemra Neferhotep, son of Haankhef, 11 years, 1 month ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-sḫm-rꜤ nfr-ḥtp) sꜢ ḥꜢ-Ꜥnḫ=f rnp.t 11 ibd 1
The Dual King, Sihathor ░░ years ░ 3 days ░░
nsw-bit sꜢ-ḥw.t-ḥr rnp.t [...] 3 [...]
The Dual King, Khaneferra Sobekhotep░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-nfr-rꜤ sbk-ḥtp [...]
░░
[...]
The Dual King, Khahotepra, 4 years, 8 months and 29 days
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḥtp-rꜤ rnp.t 4 ibd 8 hrw 29
The Dual King, Wahibra Jaib, 10 years, 8 months, 28 days
nsw-bit wꜢḥ-ib-rꜤ iꜤ-ib rnp.t 10 ibd 8 hrw 28
The Dual King, Merneferra has functioned in kingship for 23 years, 8 months and 18 days
nsw-bit mr-nrf-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsi.t rnp.t 23 ibd 8 hrw 18
The Dual King, Merhotepra, 2 years, 2-4 months and 9 days
nsw-bit mr-ḥtp-rꜤ rnp.t 2 ibd 2 hrw 9
The Dual King, Sankhenra Sewadjtu, 3 years, 2-4 months ░░
nsw-bit s-Ꜥnḫ-n-rꜤ s-wꜢḏ-tw rnp.t 3 ibd 2 [...]
The Dual King, Mersekhemra Ined, 3 years, 1 month, 1 day
nsw-bit mr-sḫm-rꜤ ind [...] rnp.t 3 ibd 1 hrw 1
The Dual King, Sewadjkara Hori, 5 years ░░ 8 days
nsw-bit s.wꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ ḥrw-i rnp.t 5 [...] hrw 8
The Dual King, Merkaura Sobekhotep, 2 years ░░ 4 days
nsw-bit [...] mr-kꜢ [...] ḫꜤ [...] sbk [...] rnp.t 2 [...] 4
The Dual King, ░░ 11 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 11 [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 3 [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, Mer ░░ra
nsw-bit [...] mr [...] rꜤ
░░
[...]
░░
[...]
The Dual King, ░░dj░░
nsw-bit [...] ḏ [...]
The Dual King, ...mes ░░
nsw-bit [...]-ms [...]
The Dual King, ...maatra Ibi ░░
nsw-bit [...]-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ ibi [...]
The Dual King, ...webenra Hor ░░
nsw-bit wbn-[...]-rꜤ ḥrw [...]
The Dual King, ...kara ░░
nsw-bit [...]-kꜤrꜤ [...]
The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...] rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, ...enra ░░ nia ░░
nsw-bit [...] n-rꜤ [...] n-iꜢ [...]
░░ kings ░░
[...] nswyt [...]
Columns 9/1 — 10/21
The Dual King, Khatira ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ.ti-rꜤ) [...] 3 [...]
The Dual King, Nebfautra, 1 year, 5 months and 15 days
nsw-bit nb-fꜢw.t-rꜤ rnp.t 1 ibd 5 hrw 15
The Dual King, Sehabra has functioned in kingship for 3 years, ░░ months and 1 day
nsw-bit s-ḥb-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsi.t rnp.t 3 ibd [...] hrw 1
The Dual King, Merdjefara 3 years ░░
nsw-bit mr-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 3+ḫ [...]
The Dual King, Sewadjkara, 1 year ░░
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 1 [...]
The Dual King, Nebdjefara, 1 year ░░
nsw-bit nb-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 1 [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 1 year, 1(+x) months ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 1 ibd 1 [...]
The Dual King, ...djefara, 4 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]- ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnp.t 4
The Dual King, ...benra ░░ 3 +X years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-bn-rꜤ [...] 3 [...]
The Dual King, Autibra ░░ missing and 18 days ░░
nsw-bit Ꜣw.t-ib-rꜤ [...] wsf hrw 18
The Dual King, Heribra, may he live, prosper (and be healthy) ░░ 29 days
nsw-bit hr-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ (snb) [...] hrw 29
The Dual King, Nebsenra ░░ 5 months and 20 days, missing ░░
nsw-bit nb=sn-rꜤ [...] 5, hrw 20 wsf [...]
The Dual King, ..ra. ░░ 21-24 days ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...] 21 [...]
The Dual King, Sekheperenra, ░░ 2 months and 1-5 days ░░
nsw-bit s-ḫpr-n-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 2 [...]
The Dual King, Djedkherura, ░░ 2 months and 5 days ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-ḫrw-rꜤ // rnp.t 2 ... 5 [...]
The Dual King, Seankhibra, ░░ and 19 days ░░
nsw-bit s-Ꜥnḫ-ib-rꜤ [...] 19 [...]
The Dual King, Nefertum..ra, ░░ and 18 days ░░
nsw-bit nfr-tm-rꜤ [...] 18 [...]
The Dual King, Sekhem..ra, has functioned in kingship for ░░ months ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-//-rꜤ ir.n [...] ns.t [...] ibd
The Dual King, Kakemura, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit kꜢ-km.w-rꜤ [...] rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Neferibra ░░ may he live, prosper and be healthy, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit nfr-ib-rꜤ [...] snb rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, I..ra, may he live, prosper and be healthy, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit i-[...]-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ-wḏꜢ-snb rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Djedkara, Anati ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ Ꜥ-nꜤ-ti [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
░
[...]
The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit rꜤ-[...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, Senefer...ra ░░
nsw-bit s-nfr-[...]-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, Menibra ░░
nsw-bit mn-ib-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, Djed... ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-[...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, Inek... ░░
nsw-bit ink-[...]
The Dual King, Ineb... ░░
nsw-bit inb-[...]
The Dual King, Ip...░░
nsw-bit ip-[...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
Total: X kings have reigned for the period of ░ years ░░
dmḏ nsi.wt ir.n=sn rnp.t [...]
Columns 10/22 — 10/29
Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]
Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]
Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]
Ruler of foreign lands, ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...]
Ruler of foreign lands, ░░ 10(+X) years
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...] rnp.t 10 [...]
Ruler of foreign lands, ░░ 40(+X) years
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...] rnp.t 40 [...]
Ruler of foreign lands, Khamudy ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt ḫꜢmdwi [...]
Total: 6 rulers of foreign lands have reigned for the period of 100+x years ░░
dmḏ ḥḳꜢw-ḫꜢswt 6 ir.n=sn rnp.t 100 [...]
Columns 10/30 — 11/15
░░
[...]
░░
[...]
The Dual King, Sekhem...ra, 3 years ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-[...]-rꜤ rnp.t 3 [...]
The Dual King, Sekhemra S..░░ 1 year ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ s-[...] rnp.t 1 [...]
The Dual King, Sewadjen...ra ░░ 1 year ░░
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-n-rꜤ-[...] rnp.t 1 [...]
The Dual King, Nebiriawra, 29 years ░░
nsw-bit nb-iri-Ꜣw.t-rꜤ rnp.t 29 [...]
The Dual King, Nebitawra ░░
nsw-bit nb-it-Ꜣw-rꜤ rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Semenenra ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit s-mn-n-rꜤ [...] rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, Seuserra ░░ 12 years, "missing" ░░
nsw-bit sw-wsr-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 12 wsf [...]
The Dual King, Sekhemra Shedwaset, X year(s) ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ šd-wꜢs.t rnp.t [...]
The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
Total: 5 kings ░░
dmḏ nsy.wt 5 [...]
Columns 11/16 — 11/31
The Dual King, User..ra ░░
nsw-bit wsr-[...]-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, User.. ░░
nsw-bit wsr-[...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]
The Dual King, ...hebra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-hb-rꜤ [...]
The Dual King, has functioned in kingship for ░░ 2 ░░
nsw-bit [...] ir.n=f m nsi.t [...] 2 [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 2 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 2 [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 4 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 4 [...]
The Dual King, ░░ 3 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnp.t 4 [...]
The Dual King, ...nra ░░ 3 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-n-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 3 [...]
There are a number of fragments that cannot be placed with certainty, or had their position changed over time, as more thorough examinations of the papyrus were undertaken.
No. | Description | |
---|---|---|
1* | This small fragment was attached at the rop right side of fr. 1 in Lepsius, but removed by Farina. Gardiner notes that 'it was rightly or wrongly removed.' (Gardiner 1959: 15, II 0) | |
2 | Unplaced. Gardiner note that it certainly belong to the papyrus, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17) | |
4 | Unplaced. Gardiner note that it belong to a heading or summation, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17) | |
7 | Placed in column I as per Gardiner, who also marked it as unplaced, but noted that the position is doubtful. (Gardiner 1959: 17) It most likely belong somewhere in column 1–3. | |
29 | Unplaced. Gardiner note that the recto has a heading in red and that it probably belongs, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17) | |
36 | This fragment can be found in Lepsius, but shows the recto of the papyrus. Unfortunately there is no hieratic facsimile of the verso available. Joined to fr. 48 in col. 5. (Gardiner 1959: 17) | |
50 | Unplaced. Gardiner note that it is written on a patch, probably from the top of a column, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 18) | |
59a | Unplaced. This fragment was attached to the top right side of fr. 59 in Lepsius, but was moved to the left of fr. 59 by Ibscher or Farina. The position in the same horizontal position indicates that there is a fibre match, but Gardiner noted the position as doubtful. (Gardiner 1959: 16, V 1) I have designated it as 59a. | |
60 | Unplaced. Only a part of the bee and the start of a cartouche. Not commented on otherwise by Gardiner. | |
66 | Unplaced. Left in place by Gardiner, but he notes that it does not belong where Farina placed it. (Gardiner 1959: 17, X 21) | |
71 | This fragment has no fibre correspondence with the surrounding fragments and Ryholt suggests it may be disregarded, while still placing it in col. 7, where I have left it. The placement is clearly to be regarded as uncertain. (Ryholt 1997: 22) | |
79 | Unplaced. This fragment was published in Lepsius where it bridged fr. 78 and 79, but was removed by Farina and Gardiner, as the writing on the recto of the fragment made the placement impossible. Ryholt suggested that the removed fragment could be placed in col. 9 or 10, but this placement is uncertain, as he made no mention of a fibre match with any of the surrounding fragments. (Ryholt 1997: 26) | |
87 | The horizontal alignment with fr. 70 is assured, as is the vertical alignment with fr. 81. However, the exact horizontal position in column 8 is uncertain as there is space available on all sides, and an accurate positon can not be established with certainty. (Ryholt 1997: 23) | |
88 | The placement in col. 7 is assured due to matching fibres. The horizontal position is however uncertain, as there is no immediate match. The placement is of little importance as the fragment only contain the royal titles. (Ryholt 1997: 23) | |
90 | Unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 18, 19) | |
94* | A small piece that is not present in Lepsius, but was added by Farina and presented in Gardiner as one fragment in column 8. | |
122 | Unplaced. Placed in column 10 by Gardiner, it was left unplaced by Ryholt. The placement is of little importance as the fragment only contain the royal titles. (Ryholt 1997: 25) | |
123* | Unplaced. The small fragment at the top of fr. 123 was not present in Lepsius. It was added by Farina, and is also present in Gardiner. Ryholt joins fr. 123 with fr. 101 of col. 9, discarding the addition by Farina without comment. Since the tiny fragment is not present in Lepsius, I have designated it as fr. 123* for now. (Ryholt 1997: 25) | |
125* | Unplaced. The leftmost part of fr. 125 was incorrectly(?) placed in Lepsius as part of the fragment, as was the leftmost part of fr. 127, which belongs above the top of the same fragment, and joins with the left side of fr. 125. | |
134 | Gardiner and Ryholt place this fragment at the bottom of col. 10, but both horizontal and vertical fiber corresprondences makes the placement at the bottom of col. 8 the correct one. Ryholt agreed with this placement. (Ben-Tor 1999: 49-50) | |
143 | Unplaced. Months and days belonging to some unknown reign. (Gardiner 1959: 18) | |
145 | Unplaced. | |
147 | Unplaced. The fragment cannot join with fr. 150 as placed by Farina. (Gardiner 1959: 17, IX 29) |
Peter Lundström 2016
This facsimile was created from the plates of Lepsius (1842).
Note: Very large image. Size: 8000x2167 (1 Mb)