The Turin king list

Papyrus 1874 verso of the Egyptian Museum in Turin, also called the Turin king list, or the Royal Canon of Turin is an Ancient Egyptian papyrus recording the names of the pharaohs and their length of reign. Written in hieratic on the backside of a tax-record, and is the most extensive list of Egyptian kings known and as such is the basis for most of the Egyptian chronology before the New Kingdom. It is roughly 175 cm wide, and 42 cm tall (68 by 16 inches.)
It was officially designated inventory number 1874 in the Turin Museum catalogue from 1881, with the king list recorded as being on the recto, but since the papyrus was first used as a tax register, with the king list added later, it is now considered to be on the verso. Facsimile of the Royal Canon of Turin king-list 2016
Facsimile of the Turin king-list by Peter Lundström 2016

The Royal Canon of Turin, unlike the other king lists of the New Kingdom, was not produced for religious purposes, but instead as a complete chronological reference aid. There is no evidence of any intentional exclusion or supression of kings, as even contemporary and ephemeral kings are included, even the reviled foreign kings of the Second Intermediate Period.

The end of the papyrus was deliberately cut off in ancient times, containing one column worth of names, probably the names of the kings of the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Dynasties. Several notations of lacuna were present on a vorlage of the papyrus, and used where a part of the source text was missing or unreadable. The order of reigns seems to be quite reliable, but there are a few instances where the position of kings may have been interchanged.


The front (recto) side of the papyrus contains an official tax-list, mentioning domains of Ramesses II, suggesting that it was produced during his reign (c. 1279-13 BC.) When this document became obsolete, it was likely put into storage, and at a later date, the back (verso) side was reused for the unofficial king-list, perhaps at a scribe training school.

The discoverer of the papyrus was likely a local resident, who found it in a tomb or temple near Thebes, but there are no first-hand accounts of the discovery. Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul-General of Egypt, acquired the papyrus, but just how is uncertain, as the stories disagree.

[the Papyrus] was purchased in Thebes almost untouched by Drovetti around 1818, and unintentionally mutilated during his transport of it. The leftovers were acquired by the collection of the Piedmontese government in 1820 and deposited in Museum of Turin, where Champollion saw them in 1824.

(translated) Gaston Maspero, "Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'orient classique". p. 225, note 5

When the papyrus was found by Drovetti, either in 1823 or in 1824, it was apparently complete, and he put it into a jar which he tied about his waist, mounted his donkey, and proceeded to ride into town. The joggling which the jar got along the path was disastrous. When Drovetti opened it the extraordinary document had been reduced to mere scraps which have been arranged and rearranged during the past hundred years, but so much had disappeared in dust on that ride on donkey-back that only the barest outline of the original document remains today.

Herbert E. Winlock. "The rise and fall of the Middle Kingdom in Thebes". p. 4

It is uncertain which of these accounts is true, or if both are fables, but it is clear that Drovetti failed to note its importance, and likely just stored it away with the many other antiquities he acquired while in Egypt. As there is no clear provenance of the discovery of the papyrus, the archaeological context is also irretrievably lost. Drovetti and his agents had a careless conduct with their discoveries, which could explain the damage it sustained, especially since they had no idea of its importance. France rejected buying his large collection of antiquities due to the high asking price. The King of Sardinia, Charles Felix of Savoy, subsequently bought the collection in 1824 for 400,000 lire.

The collection included 170 Egyptian papyri, placed in at least one large crate, and shipped to the newly formed Royal Museum of Turin. The exposure to air after millennia, the handling by its discoverer, and the subsequent transport was not kind to the fragile document. When opening the crate, many of the papyri inside had suffered badly from the transport, having disintegrated into innumerable scraps, with no easy way to discern which fragments belonged to which papyrus. The best-preserved papyri removed, while the crate with the remains put back in storage and left there for the time being. The subsequent discovery and recognition of the Canon by Champollion, led to the diligent reconstruction of the papyrus by Seyffarth a little more than a year later.


The original papyrus was a tax-register from the reign of Ramesses II, or one of his close successors. When the tax-register became obsolete, the blank backside was resued for the king list. The sources of the king-list ultimately came from several documents produced by different scribes at different times during the long history of the kingdom. These older documents would undoubtedly have been available to the scribes at the temples and schools. The inconsistent reckoning of the reigns in the papyrus makes it reasonable that the source for the king list was not one, but at least five different documents.

 Source A — Dynasties 1–2, recording years, months, days and the age of the king.
 Source B — Dynasties 3–6, recording only years.
 Source C — Dynasties 7–10, recording years, months and days.
 Source D — Dynasty 11, only recording years
 Source E — Dynasty 12, recording years, months and days.

A single full-sized papyrus containing the aggregated sources, was made sometime during the Eighteenth Dynasty. This document served as a vorlage, or template, for the Royal Canon. A copy of this vorlage suffered damage, from which yet another copy was made, with the missing parts marked by a lacuna notation. This was, in turn copied, with six years assigned to kings whose reign-length were recorded as lost, to avoid chronological gaps. A half-size papyrus roll copy of this papyrus then served as the direct vorlage of the Turin Canon during the Nineteenth Dynasty (see Fig. 1 for an overview.)

Ryholt's Table 7
Figure 1: Origin of the Royal Canon. After Ryholt (1997). Table 7, p. 32


As the Drovetti collection was being unpacked, Jean-Francois Champollion was visiting Turin. He examined the papyri collection at length, but the king-list was not among them:

I learned by chance that other fragments exist in the attic where they were relegated as too poor to deserve a better house. However, I insisted on a visit; we pulled the boxes, and the next day I could see, on entering a room I now call the columbarium of the story, a table ten feet in length, completely covered with fragments of papyri, at least half a foot thick.
This unique papyrus outweighs all others; the loss of the missing parts is regrettable; it is a historical treasure; I recognized a true timeline, a royal Canon, which recalls that of Manetho, and the fragments that I found gave me a list of over a hundred kings.

(transl.) Jean-Francois Champollion, November 6, 1824

As an unknown number of papyri had been stored together, most of them clearly fragile due to their age, the resulting debris would have consisted of an uncountable number of miniscule to medium-sized fragments. When the German scholar Gustav Seyffarth visited Turin in 1826, he found the fragments stored in a huge box at the museum.

Champollion had examined the same box two years earlier, and after having selected one fragment of the papyrus, he authoritatively ordered the curator, Signor Cantu, while the Director of the Museum was in London, to put the rest of the papyrus into the privy! Signor Cantu told me that thus at least two-thirds of the papyrus was lost forever.

The literary life of Gustavus Seyffarth: An autobiogaphical sketch, New York 1886, pp. 20-21

The truth of Seyffarth's statement is doubtful, as the two scholars became enemies over how to translate the ancient Egyptian language, and wasted no time slighting the other when they had a chance. Nonetheless, Seyffarth's careful consideration of the fibres and correspondence with the writing on the reverse would prove crucial as he began to arrange the fragments. He diligently sorted through the vast pile of fragment debris for six weeks, one by one. His diligence resulted in him finding fragments Champollion had missed or ignored. Only about a third of the papyrus remains, likely due to handling and transport. When the arrangement was as complete as Seyffarth could make it, he glued the fragments together on a thin paper, and in the process saved the papyrus from total destruction. It should be noted that Champollion did not try to reconstruct the papyrus per se, he just simply copied the fragments he deemed important.

For some reason, Seyffarth did not publish his reconstruction; but Lepsius who visited Turin in 1835, made a careful copy of it. In 1838, Lepsius examined Champollion’s copy in Paris, and the following year, Birch’s copy of a copy of Seyffarth in London. Lepsius returned to Turin in 1840, to verify the discrepancies between the various copies he had noted, and in 1842, he published his facsimile of the papyrus. Lepsius' edition is exceptionally important as the papyrus has since deteriorated further, from handling, mounting and remounting, and time of course. Wilkinson's edition of the papyrus in 1851 is nearly identical to Lepsius, with only a few minor alterations, but most important; also include the tax-record on the recto, which was ignored by Lepsius.

Some ninety odd years later, in 1930, papyrus conservation specialist Hugo Ibscher, restored and remount the papyrus. A few years later, Giulio Farina examined the papyrus and published his edition in 1938. His photographs are still the only ones ever published, and unfortunately not of the best quality. Sir Alan Gardiner published a very thorough examination of the papyrus in 1959, which still remain the definitive edition, but did not include photographs or facsimiles, only a hieroglyphic transcription. In the late 1990's, Kim Ryholt examined the papyrus for his study on the Second Intermediate Period and added much needed information and new positions for many of the fragments, including the insertion of a new column 2. The papyrus is on display at the Museo Egizio in Turin.

Since the papyrus is of great importance to scholars, it is unfortunate that the only photographs available are of such poor quality. The bicentennial of the discovery happens in: 7 years, 4 months and 9 days!

Table 1: Publishing history of the Royal Canon of Turin
Lepsius 1842 Hieratic facsimile of the verso
Wilkinson 1851 Hieratic facsimile of both sides
Champollion 1851 Fragments copied in 1824
Farina 1938 Low quality photos of the papyrus
Gardiner 1959 Transcribed hieroglyphics, corrections
Ryholt 1997 Partial reconstruction, transcribed hieroglyphics

Contents of the Turin king list

Written in hieratic, right to left, as is usual with heriatic papyri, most lines yield the name of a particular king, followed by a number of years, months and days ruled. Unlike the other king lists, it included the Hyksos kings, ephemeral rulers, and those only ruling over small territories.

The poor state of the papyrus only allows for a mostly conjectural reconstruction, but by close examination of the fibres, as well as comparing the writing on both sides of the papyrus, the placement of the fragments can be determined with a good amount of accuracy. The order, reign-lengths, and even the very existence of many kings would not have been possible to ascertain without the papyrus, many known only from this papyrus.

There are eleven columns of writing, starting with gods and demi-gods in the first two columns, and the first part of column three. The list of kings begins in 3/10, and occupies the rest of the papyrus. The number of lines increases as the papyrus nears the end, the scribe probably needed to compact the writing to be able to fit all the remaining kings onto the papyrus. The list of kings ends in column 11 with partial names of unidentifiable late Second Intermediate Period kings.

The king list can be divided into six sections. Each section starts with a heading, naming the founder and from where the kings ruled. Following this is the names and reigns of the kings belonging to this section, one per line. Lastly, a summation of the preceding section, where the duration and the number of kings are calculated. There are only six headings, but ten summations, some of which obviously have no corresponding heading, effectively yielding ten distinct periods; corresponding to dynasties 1–5, 6–8, 9–10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and the Abydos Dynasty. (see Table 2.) It is tempting to equate those ten periods with the dynasties of Manetho, but dynasties 1–10 appears as one heading and four summations in the papyrus. However, better-defined dynasties had likely appeared in the tradition by the time of Manetho, a millennium later.

Table 2: Sections of the Canon
Gods, demigods and spirits1/13/9
1Heading of Dynasty 1–103/10
  Dynasty 1–53/114/2539
  Summation of Dynasty 1–54/26
  Dynasty 6–85/15/1313
  Summation of Dynasty 6–85/145/15
  Summation of Dynasty 1–85/165/17
  Dynasty 9–105/186/918
  Summation of Dynasty 9–106/10
2Heading of Dynasty 116/11
  Dynasty 116/126/176
  Summation of Dynasty 116/18
3Heading of Dynasty 126/19
  Dynasty 126/207/28
  Summation of Dynasty 127/3
4Heading of Dynasty 13–147/4
  Dynasty 137.58/2751
  Summation of Dynasty 138/28
  Dynasty 149/110/2050
  Summation of Dynasty 1410/21
5Heading of Dynasty 1510/22
  Dynasty 1510.2310/286
  Summation of Dynasty 1510/29
6Heading of Dynasty 1610/30
  Dynasty 1610/3111/1415
  Summation of Dynasty 1611/15
  Abydos Dynasty11/1611/3116
Total number of kings  222

In ancient times a twelfth column was removed; presumably to reuse the blank recto side. The verso would have held the names of the kings of the 17th–19th dynasties, the exact number is still uncertain, the maximum being 27. Some kings of the Abydos Dynasty might also have been present, depending on the number of NK kings, headings and summations. Determining the number of kings found on the papyrus, we first find the total number of lines in columns 3–11, which is 250 (see Table 3.) Discarding the spirits of 3/1–3/9, and 3/14 of column two, 240 lines remain. The headings and summations of the dynasties account for another 18 lines, bringing the total number of lines, or kings, to 222. The names on 87 of those lines are completely lost, leaving us with 135 partial or complete names.

Table 3: Counting the kings

The 12th column would have held the names of 27–29 kings; the complete papyrus would have included some 280 lines with around 250 kings.

On each line, the title nsw-bit (the Dual King) precedes the king’s name enclosed in a cartouche. In Egypt, this title preceded the prenomen (throne name) of the king. In the NK king-lists, the recorded name is not always the expected prenomen. It is unknown why the scribe did not use the proper prenomen in the correct place. To distinguish kings with the same prenomen, the scribe simply added the nomen into the cartouche. In some cases, the nomen was added after the cartouche, as was usual with the nomen, but without a cartouche. The recorded variations of the names in the papyrus are:

  1. Prenomen in a cartouche
  2. Nomen in a cartouche
  3. Prenomen and nomen, each in its own cartouche
  4. Prenomen and nomen, both in the same cartouche
  5. Prenomen in a cartouche, followed by the nomen, not in a cartouche
This inconsistency is also present in Manetho, where most recorded names are the known prenomen, but a few use the nomen instead. There is evidence of hypercorrection of the royal names over time, that is, by adding the ubiquitous divine -ra to their name.

An indispensable source for transcribing hieratic is Georg Möller's Hieratiche Paläographie, especially volume 2 which concentrates on the hieratic of the New Kingdom.

Key for the king list:
Missing textImplied meaning of the missing text.
[...]Cannot be transcribed, the text is lost.
░░░Cannot be translated, the text is missing.
G7The G7-sign is used as a determinative in a king's name.

Dynasties 1 to 5

3/10 — 4/26

3/10 : Heading   Gardiner II 10

Kings of the house of(?) The Dual King, Meni, Life, Prosperity, Health
nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb [...]

The first heading serves as an introduction of the kings of dynasties one though ten. As there are no other headings until 6/11, it is clear that the ancient Egyptians themselves did not divide this period into ten different dynasties, as per the writings of Manetho. There are summations at 4/26, 5/14–17, and, 6/10, making this the heading for dynasties 1 through 10.

3/11 : Narmer   Gardiner II 11

The Dual King, Meni, life, prosperity and health. He reigned
nsw-bit mni Ꜥnḫ-ḏꜢ-snb irn [...]

The first king of the First Dynasty was the archaeologically attested Narmer. The name Meni, “He who endures,” is probably a descriptive epithet for the long lost name of the legendary king who united the Two Lands.1
1  Edwards 1971. 11

3/12 : Aha   Gardiner II 12

The Dual King, Ity
nsw-bit ity [...]

Only the first two signs are readable, while the position of the t-sign leave room for another sign below it, where the papyrus breaks off. The scant traces of the missing sign make it impossible to read.

3/13 : Djer   Gardiner II 13

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

Only traces of a G7-sign and the closing of the cartouche remain.

3/14 : Continuation from previous column   Gardiner II 14
Continuation from previous column
Continuation from previous column

░░ 10 +x months 28 days ░░
[...] 10 hrw 28 [...]

The trace before the month-sign was likely a 10.1 The curved line below is a sort of bracket around a line that intruded on the next column.2 The numbers on the fragment belongs to a god or demi-god in the previous column. There are no traces of any other writing on this line, suggesting it was intentionally unused.
1  Gardiner 1959. Plate 1
2 ibid. 15 (II 14 a). See also lines 5/16, 6/15, and 8/3

3/15 : Djet   Gardiner II 15

The Dual King, Ity ░░
nsw-bit [...] ittiw [...]

The bird sign G4 is not to be confused with G1,1 as it was on the Abydos Canon (No. 4). This sign appears nowhere else in the king-list2.
1  cf. Möller 1927. No. 191 (tiw) and 192 ()
2  Gardiner 1959. 15 (II 15 a)

3/16 : Den   Gardiner II 16

The Dual King, Qenty ░░
nsw-bit ḳnty [...]

The N25-sign was incorrectly interpreted as Aa8 by the scribe.1 It was also misread by the scribe of the Abydos Canon (No. 5), there as N24.
1  cf. Möller 1927. No. 322 (ḫꜤst) and 604 (ḳn)

3/17 : Adjib   Gardiner II 17

The Dual King, Merigeregepen ░░ 74 years ░░
nsw-bit mr-grg-pn [...] rnpt 74 [...]

The original archaic W10-sign was misread by the scibe as U17,1 and further misinterpreted as N41 in the Abydos Canon, and R7E in the Saqqara Canon.2
1  Möller 1927. No. 467 (grg)
2  Gardiner 1959. 15 (II 17 a); Helck 1992. 163

3/18 : Semerkhet   Gardiner II 18

The Dual King, Semsem ░░ 72 years ░░
nsw-bit smsm [...] 72 [...]

The unreadable archaic figure of an elder priest, was recorded by the scribe as smsm, a Late NK version of smsw, as in the Abydos Canon.1
1  Helck 1992. 163

3/19 : Qaa   Gardiner II 19

The Dual King, Qebeh ░░ 63 years ░░
nsw-bit bḥ [...] rnpt 63

The starting cartouche is lost, and the number of years is certain.

3/20 : Hotepsekhemwy   Gardiner II 20

The Dual King, Baunetjer ░░ 95 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] bꜢ.w-nṯr [...] 95 [...]

The ink on fr. 21 is faded, making the signs hard to read, but the signs are probably G30 (storks) followed by a determinative. The numbers are certain.

3/21 : Nebra   Gardiner II 21

The Dual King, Kakau ░░
nsw-bit kꜢkꜤ.w [...]

The ink on fr. 21 is faded; the broken sign is likely a w, or less likely a wt1 The scribe omitted the number at the end.2
1  cf. Möller, No. 200 and V; Gardiner 1959. 15 (II 21 a)
2  Gardiner 1959. 15 (II 21 b)

3/22 : Ninetjer   Gardiner II 22

The Dual King, Baunetjer ░░ 95 years ░░
nsw-bit bꜢ.w-nṯr [...] 95 [...]

Only the last signs of the name remains, but the numbers are certain.

3/23 : Wadjenes   Gardiner II 23

The Dual King, Wadjnes ░░ 70 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-s [...] 70 [...]

Only the trace of what could be a (S29) S-sign remain of the name and fits well with the last S-sign of the Abydos Canon.1 The 70-sign is certain.
1  Gardiner 1959. 15 (II 23 a)

3/24 : Senedj   Gardiner II 24

The Dual King, Senedj ░░ 54 years ░░
nsw-bit snḏ [...] 54 [...]

The number is probably 54, not 74 since the trace of the tens are so close to the four.1
1  Gardiner 1959. 15 (II 24 a); cf. Möller 1927. No. 627 (50-sign) vs. 629 (70-sign)

3/25 : Sneferka   Gardiner II 25

The Dual King, Aaka ░░ 70 years ░░
nsw-bit ꜤꜢ-kꜢ [...] 70 [...]

The writing is clearly ꜤꜢ-kꜢ, with the beginning of the cartouche omitted. The ꜤꜢ-sign is obviously a mistake for nfr, which resemble each other in hieratic.1The Saqqara Canon (no.51) correctly reads the name as nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ. The New Kingdom scribes "corrected" the name Seneferka into Neferkara by exchanging the initial s with the recognizable honorific rꜤ. This was a common practice that made sense to the scribes, as can be noted several times in the king lists.2
1  Ryholt 2008. 163-4, note 15; For the signs, cf. Möller 1927. No. 363 (ꜤꜢ) vs. 180 (nfr)
2  Ryholt 2008. 166ff.

4/1 : Neferkasokar   Gardiner III 1

The Dual King, Neferkasokar ░░ 8 years, 3 months ░░ 10
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ-skr rnpt 8, Ꜣbd 3, hrw [...] 10

The upper part of the ten-sign at the end is lost, making it uncertain if the number is 10, 20 or 30.

4/2 : Hudjefa I   Gardiner III 2

The Dual King, Hudjefa, 11 years, 8 months, 4 days, his lifetime being 34 years
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnpt 11, Ꜣbd 8, hrw 4 ꜤḥꜤ-f-m-Ꜥnḫ 34

Hudjefa is a pseudonum that replaced an illegible or damaged name. The years could possibly be 21 instead of 11. Hudjefa also appears in the Saqqara Canon (no. 49,) between Neferkasokar and Khasekhemwy.

4/3 : Khasekhemwy   Gardiner III 3

The Dual King, Bebti ░░ 27 years, 2 months, 1 day, his lifetime being 40 ░░
nsw-bit bbti [...] rnpt 27, Ꜣbd 2, hrw 1, ꜤhꜤ=f m Ꜥnḫ 40 [...] 7

The NK scribes interpreted an unknown name of Khasekhemwy from their sources differently, causing divergent names being used in the canons.

4/4 : Nebka   Gardiner III 4

The Dual King, Nebka ░░ 19 yearsHis lifetime being?
nsw-bit nb-kꜢ [...] 19

Gardiner saw a clear trace of a one after the kꜢ-sign, which is absent in Lepsius and Wilkinson.

4/5 : Djoser   Gardiner III 5

The Dual King, Djoserit he reigned for the period of 19 years and 1 month, his lifetime being ░
nsw-bit ḏsr-it ir-n-f m-nsi.t rnpt 19 Ꜣbd 1 ꜤḥꜤ=f-m-Ꜥnḫ...

The name is certain with one possible sign lost above the t.

4/6 : Sekhemkhet   Gardiner III 6

The Dual King, Djoserti, 6 years ░░
nsw-bit ḏsr-ti rnpt 6

The rnpt ahead of the years was curiously omitted by the scribe.

4/7 : Hudjefa II   Gardiner III 7

The Dual King, Hudjefa, 6 years ░░
nsw-bit ḥw-ḏfꜢ rnpt 6 [...]

The first vertical stroke is likely a partial I10-sign (), but curiously there is no trace of the G1-sign (). The likely name would be Hudjefa, a pseudonym replacing an illegible or damaged name. The six years were assigned to kings where their length of reign was unknown.

4/8 : Huni   Gardiner III 8

The Dual King, Huni, life, prosperity and health, 24 years, the one who has built Seshem ░░
nsw-bit ḥwni [...] Ꜥnḫ-wḏꜢ-snb rnpt 24 pꜢ-ḳd-sšm

The sublinear sign on fr. 17 could be a I9-sign (f). The G17-sign (m) from Gardiner is clearly not present on the fragment.

4/9 : Sneferu   Gardiner III 9

The Dual King, Snofer(u), 24 years ░░
nsw-bit snfr rnpt 24

The opening cartouche is missing. Traces of the G43-sign (w) is visible on fr. 32.

4/10 : Khufu (?)   Gardiner III 10

The Dual King, Khufu, 23 years ░░
[...] rnpt 23

The name is lost, but Khufu is present on the Abydos Canon (42) and the Saqqara Canon (21), following Sneferu.

4/11 : Radjedef (?)   Gardiner III 11

The Dual King, Radjedef, 8 years ░░
[...] rnpt 8 [...]

The name is lost, but this line would have held the name Radjedef, who was the son and successor of Khufu. The name is present on the Saqqara (41) and Abydos (22) king lists following Khufu.

4/12 : Khafra   Gardiner III 12

The Dual King, Khafra ░ years ░░
nsw-bit [...] ḫꜤ [...]

The name is lost, but the trace of a ḫꜤ-sign could only have belonged to Khafra. The trace of what could be a w-sign, would explain the presence of the sign on the Saqqara Canon (40).

4/13 : Baufra (?)   Gardiner III 13

The Dual King, Baka, ░ years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt [...]

The name of the fifth king of the Fifth Dynasty is lost. The records from the OK were lost over time, which resulted in tradition supplanting historical facts. The tradition of the pyramid builders overshadowed the ‘lesser’ kings of the dynasty, which over time, were simply lumped together at the end of the dynasty. According to Manetho, the Hellenized names of the sixth and eight kings wereBikheres and Thamphthis, both otherwise completely unknown.

4/14 : Menkaura (?)   Gardiner III 14

The Dual King, Menkaura, 28 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 28

Only the bottom part of the ten-sign is visible, which means he number of years could be 18, 28, or even 38. Menkaura reigned for a minimum of 18 years, making it likely his name would have been found here.

4/15 : Shepseskaf (?)   Gardiner III 15

The Dual King, Shepseskaf, 4 years ░░
[...] rnpt 4

The name is lost, only traces of the closing cartouche remains. Shepseskaf succeeded Menkaura, and is known to only have ruled for a few years, which would seem to fit well with the 4 years recorded here.

4/16 : Thamphthis (?)   Gardiner III 16

The Dual King, Thamphthis, 2 years ░░
[...] rnpt 2

The name of the eight king of this dynasty is lost, only the record of a two-year reign remains. The tradition of the pyramid builders overshadowed the "lesser" kings of the dynasty, which over time, were simply lumped together at the end of the dynasty. In this position, Manetho record Thamphthis, a king that is otherwise completely unattested. The Abydos Canon does not record a king between Shepseskaf (25) and Userkaf (26.)

4/17 : Userkaf   Gardiner III 17

The Dual King, Userkaf, 7 years ░░
[...]-kꜢ-[...] rnpt 7

There are traces a D28-sign (kꜢ), and below that possibly a minute part of an I9-sign (f).

4/18 : Sahura (?)   Gardiner III 18

The Dual King, Sahura, 12 years ░░
[...] rnpt 12

The name is lost, and only the record of 12 years remains. Sahura was the son of Userkaf, and succeeded his father, and is attested on the Abydos Canon (27) and the Saqqara Canon (33) as the successor to Userkaf.

4/19 : Neferirkara I Kakai (?)   Gardiner III 19

The Dual King, Neferirkara reigned for a period of ░░
[...] ir.n=f m ns(y.t) [...]

The name is missing, only the end of the cartouche remains. Neferirkara was the son and successor of Sahura and was the first king that used the prenomen and nomen as independent names. Attested on the Abydos Canon (28) and the Saqqara Canon (33) as the successor to Sahura.

4/20 : Shepseskara Netjeruser (?)   Gardiner III 20

The Dual King, Shepseskara, 7 years ░░
[...] rnpt 7

Shepseskara probably usurped the throne and only ruled a few months, but is present on the Saqqara Canon (31) between Neferirkara and Neferefra. As the fourth king of the dynasty, he is identified with Manetho's Sisires who is attributed a 7 year reign.

4/21 : Neferefra Isi (?)   Gardiner III 21

The Dual King, Neferefra, X years ░░
[...] rnpt [...]

Neferefra was the eldest son of Neferirkara and is present on the Abydos Canon (29.) The singular year stroke is in accord with the contemporary evidence that his reign lasted only a year or two. The entry in the Saqqara Canon (30,) Kha-nfr-ra is puzzling, perhaps confusing it with his Horus name, Nefer-khau, which use the same signs.

4/22 : Niuserra Ini (?)   Gardiner III 22

The Dual King, Niuserra, 11+ x years ░░
[...] rnpt 11 [...]

Only the bottom part of the ten sign is visible followed by a stroke after which the papyrus breaks off. Accordingly, the number could be 11-14, 21-24, or 31-34. Niuserra is found on the Abydos (30) and Karnak (4) Canons.

4/23 : Menkauhor Kaiu   Gardiner III 23

The Dual King, Menkauhor, 8 years ░░
nsw-bit mn-kꜢ-ḥr rnpt 8 [...]

Also attested on the Abydos (31) and Saqqara (29) Canons, and Manetho's Menkheres is the hellenized form of the name.

4/24 : Djedkara Isesi   Gardiner III 24

The Dual King, Djedu, 28 years ░░
nsw-bit ḏd.w rnpt 28

Attested on the Canons of Abydos (32), Saqqara (28) and Karnak (5), by three slightly different names, with a fourth recorded here. The variations are likely due to lacuna in the original NK official records.

4/25 : Unas   Gardiner III 25

The Dual King, Unas, 30 years ░░
nsw-bit wnis rnpt 30 [...]

Unas, the last king of the fifth dynasty, is also present on the Abydos (33) and Saqqara (27) Canons. Manetho hellenized his name as Onnos.

4/26 : Summation of Dynasty 1-5   Gardiner III 26
Summation of Dynasty 1-5
Summation of Dynasty 1-5

Total of the kings beginning with Meni down to Unas, their years
dmḏ nswyw šꜢ mni r-mn [...]

Dynasties 6 to 8

5/1 — 5/17

5/1 : Teti   Gardiner IV 1

The Dual King, Teti, ░ 6 months, 21 days
nsw-bit ibd 6, hrw 21

The name is lost, as is the number of years, only the months and days remain. Teti was the successor to Unas, as is evident on the Canons of Abydos (34), Saqqara (26) and possibly Karnak (14).

5/2 : Userkara   Gardiner IV 2

The Dual King, Userkara ░░
nsw-bit [...]

The entire line is lost, but Userkara is present between Teti and Pepi I on the Abydos Canon (35).

5/3 : Pepi I   Gardiner IV 3

The Dual King, ░░ 20 years
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 20

The reign (or the entire record) was likely interchanged with 5/4 below, correcting the reign of Pepi I to 44 years, which agrees with the archaeological records. Pepi I reigned between 25 to 50 years, while his successor only ruled around ten years.1
1  Ryholt 1997. 13-14

5/4 : Nemtiemsaf I   Gardiner IV 4

The Dual King, ░░ 44 years
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 44

The trace just before the '4' is not the top of a 10-sign, but a dot of the hieratic number 40. which is now partly obscured by a piece of transparent tape.1 The reign (or the entire record) was likely interchanged with 5/3 above, making the correct reign 20 years for this king.2
1  Ryholt 2000. 90, note 15
2  Ryholt 1997. 13-14

5/5 : Pepi II   Gardiner IV 5

The Dual King, ░░ 90 + x years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 90 [...]

This entry can only belong to Pepi II due to the long reign described, as no other king even comes close to this number.

5/6 : Nemtiemsaf II   Gardiner IV 6

The Dual King, ░░ 1 year, 1 month
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 1 Ꜣbd 1

The name is lost, but Nemtyemsaf II is listed in the Abydos Canon (39) as the successor of Pepi II. The fibres of fr. 40 correspond with fr. 43, and has been moved here from the unplaced fragments of Gardiner.1
1  Ryholt 2000. 88ff.

5/7 : Netjerikara   Gardiner IV 8 + pl. IX

The Dual King, Netiqerty Siptah, he reigned ░░
nsw-bit ntiḳrti zꜢ-ptḥ irn [...]

Fr. 43 has been moved uo one line from Gardiner and joins with Fr. 40.1 The name Netiqerty is a phonetic corruption of the similar-sounding Netjerikara and was long interpreted as belonging to the otherwise unattested Queen Nitocris in Manetho's epitome. It is however evident that it is not the name of a queen, as the name Siptah (Son of Ptah) follows the cartouche.2 Furthermore, this line could also have held a lacuna notation, which is ironically lost in the lacuna, explaining the missing ten kings that does appear on the Abydos Canon.3
1  Ryholt 2000. 88-90
2  ibid. 93
3  ibid. 96-98

5/8 : Neferkara Pepiseneb   Gardiner IV 9 + pl. IX

The Dual King, Neferka, Pepi Seneb ░░
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ ppi-snb [...]

The fibres of fr. 40 correspond with fr. 43, and has been moved here from the unplaced fragments of Gardiner.1 The corruption of Pepi-seneb into Khered-seneb might derive from a lacuna-riddled vorlage, also losing the initial ra-sign. The A17-sign (ẖrd, child) is followed by the divine determinative, and would be analogous to ppy-snb.2 A large lacuna in ancient records could explain why the name appears out of order on the Abydos Canon (51), where it should have occupied no. 41.
1  Ryholt 2000. 88ff.
2  ibid. 93-4

5/9 : Neferkamin Anu   Gardiner IV 10 + pl. IX

The Dual King, Nefer, ░░
nsw-bit nfr [...]

Attested on the Abydos Canon (52) as Neferkamin Anu.

5/10 : Qakara Ibi   Gardiner IV 11 + V 10

The Dual King, Ibi ░░ 2 years, 1 month and 1 day
nsw-bit ibi [...] rnpt 2, Ꜣbd 1, hrw 1

Attested slightly incorrectly as Qakaura on AC (53), while the pyramid texts clearly present the correct Qakara, with the singular ka.1
1  Ryholt 2000. 99 note a

5/11 : Neferkaura   Gardiner IV 11
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, 4 years and 2 months
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 4, Ꜣbd 2, hrw 1

The name is lost. Neferkaura is attested on the Abydos Canon (54).

5/12 : Neferkauhor   Gardiner IV 12
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 2 years, 1 month and 1 day ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 2, Ꜣbd 1, hrw 1

The name is lost. Neferkahor is attested on the Abydos Canon (55).

5/13 : Neferirkara II   Gardiner IV 13
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 1½ year
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 1 gs

The name is lost. Neferirkara is attested on the Abydos Canon (56). This is not Neferirkara of the Fifth Dynasty,1 but a different king during the First Intermediate Period.
1  For Neferirkara Kakai, see 4/19.

5/14 : Summation   Gardiner IV 14

Total of X kings until Neferkara amounting to 181 years
[...] nswyw [...] ir n rnpt 181

Summation of the Sixth to Eight Dynasties. The traces of the ir-sign on Fr. 61 is not present in Lepsius or Wilkinson.

5/15 : Summation continued   Gardiner IV 15
Summation continued
Summation continued

6 months, 3 days, and a lacuna of 6 years. Total: 187 years, 6 months, 3 days. Total of kings...
[...] Ꜣbd 6 hrw 3 wsf 6 dmḏ [...] nswywt

Summation continued from 5/14. The sublinear sign is the tail of a 100-sign.1 Summation of the First to Eight Dynasties begins at the end of the line.
1  Gardiner 1959. 16 ( IV 15 a)

5/16 : Summation continued   Gardiner IV 16
Summation continued
Summation continued

...from Meni, their kingship, their years, and a lacuna thereto: 949 years, 15 days,and a lacuna of 6 years
[...] mni nswyt=sn rnpt=sn wsf [...] Ꜣbd 9 hrw 6 wsf rnpt 6

Summation continued from 5/15. The curved line at the end is a sort of bracket around a line that intruded on the next column, as can also be seen in 3/14.

5/17 : Summation continued   Gardiner IV 17
Summation continued
Summation continued

Total: x kings amounting to 955 years and 15 days
dmḏ [...] rnpt 955, hrw 15

Summation continued from 5/16. The number of days can be restored to 15, despite the missing five at the end1
1  Ryholt 2000. 95-96

Dynasties 9 and 10

5/18 — 6/10

5/18 : Name lost   Gardiner IV 18
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King ░░
nsw-bit [...]

5/19 : Name lost   Gardiner IV 19
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King ░░
nsw-bit [...]

5/20 : Neferkara   Gardiner IV 20

The Dual King, Neferkara ░░
nsw-bit nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ [...]

This king is only attested in the Turin Canon, and there are no archaeological finds of his reign.

5/21 : Wahkara Khety II   Gardiner IV 21

The Dual King, Kheti ░░
nsw-bit ḫt-iti [...]

The A51-sign is curiosly missing the "seat" vertical stroke at the back.
  Gardiner 1959. 16 (IV 21 a)

5/22 : Senen   Gardiner IV 22

The Dual King, S...tut-h... ░░ he reigned ░
nsw-bit s [...] twt hꜤ [...] ir-n.f [...]

The traces of signs after the initial S29-sign are illegible. There is certainly not space for the reading of swnn as proposed by Černý.1
1  Gardiner 1959: 16 IV 22 a-b

5/23 : Neferkara Khety III   Gardiner IV 23

The Dual King, [...] Neferkara ░░
nsw-bit [...] nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ

The first signs of the first cartouche are unreadable traces, perhaps ẖt.1
1 Beckerath 1999. 72

5/24 : Mery.. Khety   Gardiner IV 24
Mery.. Khety
Mery.. Khety

The Dual King, Mery░ Khety ░░
nsw-bit mry [...] ẖty [...]

5/25 : Shed..y   Gardiner IV 25

The Dual King, Shed..y ░░
nsw-bit šd-[...]-y

5/26 : H...   Gardiner IV 26

The Dual King, H... ░░
nsw-bit ḥ [...]

Only the start of the name and the closing cartouche are preserved.

6/1 : Name lost   Gardiner V 1
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░ months ░░
nsw-bit [...] ibd [...]

6/2 : Name lost   Gardiner V 2
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

6/3 : Name lost   Gardiner V 3
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

6/4 : Name lost   Gardiner V 4
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

A trace of the tip of what could be a mr or wsr sign is visible above the opening cartouche, but it is only guesswork.1
1  Gardiner 1959. 15 (V 4 a)

6/5 : Name lost   Gardiner V 5
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

6/6 : Name lost   Gardiner V 6
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

6/7 : Name lost   Gardiner V 7
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

6/8 : Papyrus missing   Gardiner V 8
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


6/9 : Name lost   Gardiner V 9
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

6/10 : Summation of dynasty 9-10   Gardiner V 10
Summation of dynasty 9-10
Summation of dynasty 9-10

Total of 18 kings ░░
dmḏ nsw 18 [...]

Summation of Dynasty IX-X.

Dynasty 11

6/11 — 6/18

6/11 : Heading of dynasty 11   Gardiner V 11
Heading of dynasty 11
Heading of dynasty 11

The kings ░░
nsi.wt [...]

The heading of Dynasty XI written with red ink.

6/12 : Mentuhotep I   Gardiner V 12

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

Gardiner tenatively restored the first sign as V29 (wꜢḥ,) noting it could also be N28 (ḫꜤ),1 but neither restoration fits a Dynasty XI king. Beckerath proposed sꜢ as a possible reading,2 but the tiny trace makes a proper identification impossible. Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back, this line would have contained the name of Mentuhotep I.
1  RCT 16 (V 12 a)
2  von Beckerath. "Some remarks on Helck's 'Anmerkungen zum Turiner Konigspapyrus'". JEA 81 (1995). 226

6/13 : Intef I   Gardiner V 13

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back from that, this line would have contained the name of Intef I

6/14 : Intef II   Gardiner V 14

The Dual King, ░░ 49 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] 49 [...]

The partial sign before the 9 is most likely a 40. Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back from that, this line would have contained the name of Intef II

6/15 : Intef III   Gardiner V 15

The Dual King, ░░ 8 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 8 [...]

Line 6/16 contains the name of Mentuhotep II, and counting back from that, this line would have contained the name of Intef III

6/16 : Mentuhotep II   Gardiner V 16

The Dual King, Nebhapetra ░░ 51 years ░░
nsw-bit nb-ḥꜢpt-rꜤ [...] rnp.t 51 [...]

6/17 : Mentuhotep III   Gardiner V 17

The Dual King, Sankhka(ra) ░░ 12 years ░░
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-kꜢ [...] 12 [...]

The darker fragment was added by Farina, so the signs are likely incorrectly drawn, as they were traced from his poor photo.

6/18 : Summation of dynasty 11   Gardiner V 18
Summation of dynasty 11
Summation of dynasty 11

Total: 6 kings amounting to 136 years and a lacuna of 7 years, Total: 143 years ░░
dmḏ nsw 6 ir n rnpt 136 wsf 7 dmḏ 143 [...]

The unnumbered fragment was added by Farina. The seven year lacuna likely belong to Mentuhotep IV.

Dynasty 12

6/19 — 7/3

6/19 : Heading of dynasty 12   Gardiner V 19
Heading of dynasty 12
Heading of dynasty 12

Kings of the Residence Itj-tawy ░░
[...] ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwy

6/20 : Amenemhat I   Gardiner V 20

The Dual King, Sehotepibra reigned for ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsyt [...]

All but ending of the name is lost, but Amenemhat I's throne name was Sehotepibra and was the predecessor of Senusret I in 6/21. The traces at the end of the line is undoubtedly correct according to Gardiner. Only part of the trace of a nine is recorded, with the sign for a likely 20 lost where the papyrus breaks off.

6/21 : Senusret I   Gardiner V 21

The Dual King, Kheperkara ░░ 45 years
nsw-bit ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 45 [...]

All but the ending of the name is lost, but Senusret I’s name contain kA and was the predecessor of Amenemhat II. The signs for 40+5 years are certain,1 although the vertical stroke of the five is weak.
1  Murnane, "Ancient Egyptian co-regencies", SAOC 40 (1977). p. 5 note 20

6/22 : Amenemhat II   Gardiner V 22

The Dual King, Nebkaura ░░ 10+X years
nsw-bit nbw-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnpt 10 [...]

The name is lost, but can only have held Amenemhat II, since he was the predecessor of Senusret II in 6/23. The ten-sign could be a 10, 20, or 30, but most likely 30, as Amenemhat II reigned for at least 35 years, for a likely total of 35–39 years.

6/23 : Senusret II   Gardiner V 23

The Dual King, Khapheperra ░░ 19 years ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḫpr-rꜤ [...] rnpt 19 [...]

The name is lost, but Senusret II was the predecessor to Senusret III in 6/24. The partial ten-sign could be a 10/20/30, but most likely a 10. Below that is the partial sign for a nine, yielding a 19-year reign.

6/24 : Senusret III   Gardiner V 24

The Dual King, Nebkaura ░░ 30+X years
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnpt 30 [...]

The name is lost, but Senusret III was the predecessor to Amenemhat III in 6/25. The 30-sign is certain; the subsequent number could be in the range of 1–8,1 for a total of 30-38 years.
1  A nine is impossible, see Gardiner 1959. 16 (V 24 a)

6/25 : Amenemhat III   Gardiner V 25

The Dual King, Nimaatra ░░ 40+X years
nsw-bit ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ [...] rnpt 40 [...]

The name is lost, but Amenemhat III was the predecessor of Amenemhat IV in 7/1. The 40-sign is certain, but any extra years are lost.

7/1 : Amenemhat IV   Gardiner VI 1

The Dual King, Maakherura has reigned for the period of 9 years, 3 months and 27 days
nsw-bit mꜢꜤ-ḫrw-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsyt rnpt 9 Ꜣbd.w 3 hrw 27

7/2 : Neferusobek   Gardiner VI 2

The Dual King, Sobekneferu(ra), 3 years, 10 months and 24 days
nsw-bit sbk-nfr.w-rꜤ rnpt 3 Ꜣbd 10 hrw 24

Sobekneferu’s name was hypercorrected by the NK scribes by adding the ubiqitous -ra to the name.

7/3 : Summation of dynasty 12   Gardiner VI 3
Summation of dynasty 12
Summation of dynasty 12

Total kings of the Residence Itj-tawy, 8 kings who ruled 213 years, 1 month and 17 days
dmḏ nsi.wt n.t ẖnw iṯ-tꜢwi nsi.wt 8 ir.n rnpt 213 Ꜣbd 1 hrw 17

Summation of Dynasty XII. The diagonal trace above the last numbers is likely the start of a bracket around the end of the line that encroached column 8, as seen in lines 3/14 and 5/16.

Dynasty 13

7/4 — 8/28

7/4 : Heading of Dynasty 13   Gardiner VI 4
Heading of Dynasty 13
Heading of Dynasty 13

Kings who came after the children (?) of The Dual King, Sehotepibra, may he live, prosper and be healthy
nsi.wt [...] sꜢ [...] nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ snb

Heading of the Thirteenth Dynasty, or possibly for the entire Second Intermediate Period.1
1  Ryholt 1997. 33, note 83

7/5 : Sobekhotep I   Gardiner VI 5

The Dual King, Khutawyra has reigned for 2 years, 3 months and 24 days
nsw-bit ḫw-tꜢwy-rꜤ ir-[...] nswyt rnpt 2, ibd 3, hrw 24

The throne name Khutawyra on this line was earlier incorrectly emended as Sekhemra Khutawy to fit with other sources, but was likely interchanged with the similar Sekhemra Khutawyra Sobekhotep on line 7/19.1
1  Ryholt 1997, 316ff.

7/6 : Sonbef   Gardiner VI 6

The Dual King, Sekhemkara ░░ years ░ lacuna years, 6 years
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] rnpt [...] wsf rnp.t 6

There is a trace of what could be imn on fr. 72, which might be the beginning of the name Amenemhat. The reign length is lost, and the lacuna notation was likely for the successor, Nerikara, whose record was missing.

7/7 : Sekhemkara Amenemhat   Gardiner VI 7

The Dual King, Amenemhat(ra) ░░ 3 years
nsw-bit i-mn-m-ḥꜢ.t (rꜤ) [...] rnpt 3

There are worn traces of the start of the cartouche and a rꜤ-sign. The traces of imn are very probable, while m-ḥꜢt are certain. The final number could be in the 3-4 range.1 There might also have been lacuna notation on this line for Ameny Qemau, which is itself lost in lacuna.2
1  Ryholt 1997. 74
2  ibid. 73, 214

7/8 : Qemau Siharnedjheritef   Gardiner VI 8

The Dual King, Sehotepibra ░░ 1 ░░
nsw-bit {s}ḥtp-ib-rꜤ [...] 1

The scribe incorrectly added an initial s to the correct name Hotepibra,1 as attested by all other finds of this king.
1  Ryholt 1998. p. 3; Situation. 338-9, file 13/10.

7/9 : Iufni   Gardiner VI 9

The Dual King, Iufni ░░
nsw-bit iw=f-n=i [...]

7/10 : Sankhibra Amenemhat   Gardiner VI 10

The Dual King, Sankhibra ░░ 23 days ░░
nsw-bit sꜤnḫ-ib-rꜤ [...] 23 [...]

7/11 : Nebnun   Gardiner VI 11

The Dual King, Semenkara ░░ 22 days ░░
nsw-bit smn-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] 22 [...]

7/12 : Sewesekhtawy Sehotepibra   Gardiner VI 12

The Dual King, Sehotepibra ░░ 1 (+ x months,) 27 days ░░
nsw-bit sḥtp-ib-rꜤ [...] 1 [...] 27 [...]

7/13 : Sewadjkara   Gardiner VI 13

The Dual King, Sewadjkara ░░ 11 (+x days)
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] 11 [...]

The unnumbered fragment with rꜤ-s-wꜢḏ was added by Farina,1 the traces were copied from his photograph.2 The top part of a partial twenty-sign is visible on fr. 75, which Gardiner rendered as a ten, but a ten does not have a horizontal stroke, making the number a likely 21+x days.
1  Gardiner 1959. 16 (VI 13 a)
2  Farina 1938. pl. 6

7/14 : Nedjemibra   Gardiner VI 14

The Dual King, Nedjemibra ░░ [0 years] 7 months ░░
nsw-bit nḏm-ib-rꜤ [...] 7 [...]

Gardiner read the trace of the last sign as a probable nine,1 but since the sign does not end below the line, it is likely a seven.2
1  Gardiner 1959. 16 (VI 14 b)
2  Ryholt 1997. 74, 192

7/15 : Sobekhotep II   Gardiner VI 15

The Dual King, Sobekhotep ░░
nsw-bit sbk-ḥtp-rꜤ zꜢ [...]

The traces of Son of… follows the cartouche, but the name is unreadable,1 as are the small traces on Fr. 70, that Gardiner read as a two.2
1  Ryholt 1997. 215
2  Gardiner 1959. 16 (VI 15 a)

7/16 : Ranisonb   Gardiner VI 16

The Dual King, Renseneb has functioned in kingship for ░░ 4 months ░░
nsw-bit rn-snb ir.n [...] Ꜣbd 4

Gardiner incorrectly transcribed an f below the numbers,1 but there is no trace of that on fr. 70, and the fragment was moved slightly to the left compared to Gardiner because there is no vertical fibre correspondence with fr. 70 and 78.2
1  Gardiner 1959. Plate III
2  Ryholt 1997. 22

7/17 : Hor I   Gardiner VI 17

The Dual King, Awtibra ░░ 7 days ░░
nsw-bit Ꜣw.t-ib-rꜤ [...] 7 [...]

A possible lacuna notation might have been found on this line, but if so, is itself lost in the lacuna. This is almost certain because at least four known successors of Awtibra are absent from the papyrus.1
1 Ryholt 1997. 12, 218-9

7/18 : Sedjefakara Kay-Amenemhat   Gardiner VI 18

The Dual King, Sedjefa..kara, X years ░░
nsw-bit s-ḏfꜢ [...] kꜢ-rꜤ rnpt [...]

7/19 : Wegaf   Gardiner VI 19

The Dual King, Sekhemra Khutawy Sobekhotep, X years ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ ḫw-tꜢwy sbk-ḥtp rnpt [...]

The throne name sḫm-rꜤ ḫw-tꜢwy sbk-ḥtp written on this line was interchanged with ḫw-tꜢwy-rꜤ in 7/5 where the name belongs.1 The correct name for this line is Khutawyra, which is Wegaf's throne name.
1  Ryholt 1997. 316ff.

7/20 : Khendjer   Gardiner VI 20 + VI 11

The Dual King, Userkara Khendjer, X years ░░
nsw-bit wsr [...] rꜤ ḫnḏr rꜤ rnpt [...]

The second N5-sign (rꜤ) was a misinterpretation by the scribe of the similar-looking Aa1-sign ().1
1  Slighly different signs, see Möller 1927. No. 574 and 303

7/21 : Imyremeshaw   Gardiner VI 21

The Dual King, (Smenkh)kara Imyremeshaw, 4 days
nsw-bit [...] kꜢ-rꜤ imy-r-mšꜤw [...] 4

The nomen Imyremeshaw1 was a military title, but was on occasion also a personal name for families with a military tradition.2 The position of fr. 71 (orange background) is tenative.3
1 With prenomen on Cairo JE 37466 (statue). See Petrie 1885. Plate III (17 B)
2  Ryholt 1997. 221-2
3  Ryholt 1997. 22, 71. Ryholt tenatively placed fr. 71 in col. 7/21-3, moving it down ten lines compared to Gardiner.

7/22 : Intef IV   Gardiner VI 22

The Dual King, Sehotepkara Intef, ░░ 3 days
[...] s-ḥtp-kꜢ-rꜤ [...] in.t=f [...] 3

The position of fr. 71 (orange background) is tenative (see 7/21 above).

7/23 : Meribra Seth   Gardiner VI 23

The Dual King, Meribra, Seth ░░ 6 days
nsw-bit [...] mr-ib-rꜤ [...] stẖ ) [...] 6

Gardiner removed part of Fr. 79.1 The position of fr. 71 (orange background) is tenative (see 7/21 above).
1  Gardiner 1959. 16 (IV 23 a). See unplaced fragment 79a below for a description of the removed fragment.

7/24 : Sobekhotep III   Gardiner VI 24

The Dual King, Sekhemkara [Wadjtawy] Sobekhotep, 4 years, 2 months x days ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ [wꜢḏ-tꜢ.wy] sbk-ḥtp rnpt 4, Ꜣbd 1 [...]

Gardiner recorded only 3 years,1 but as can be seen on Lepsius' facsimile, there are actually 4 strokes, or years.2
1  Gardiner 1959. Plate III
2  Ryholt 1997. 74

7/25 : Neferhotep I   Gardiner VI 25

The Dual King, Khasekhemra Neferhotep, son of Haankhef, 11 years, 1 month ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-sḫm-rꜤ nfr-ḥtp) sꜢ ḥꜢ-Ꜥnḫ=f rnpt 11 Ꜣbd 1

Only a trace of the number of months is visible as the papyrus breaks off. The number might be any number of 1-4.

7/26 : Sihathor   Gardiner VI 26

The Dual King, Sihathor ░░ years ░ 3 days ░░
nsw-bit sꜢ-ḥw.t-ḥr rnpt [...] 3 [...]

7/27 : Sobekhotep IV   Gardiner VI 27

The Dual King, Khaneferra Sobekhotep░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-nfr-rꜤ sbk-ḥtp [...]

7/28 : Sobekhotep V
Unknown king
Unknown king


The name is lost, but Sobekhotep V succeeded Sobekhotep IV and was himself succeeded by Sobekhotep VI, which would place his name on this line.

8/1 : Sobekhotep VI   Gardiner VII 1

The Dual King, Khahotepra, 4 years, 8 months and 29 days
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-ḥtp-rꜤ rnpt 4 Ꜣbd 8 hrw 29

8/2 : Wahibra Jaib   Gardiner VII 2

The Dual King, Wahibra Jaib, 10 years, 8 months, 28 days
nsw-bit wꜢḥ-ib-rꜤ iꜤ-ib rnpt 10 Ꜣbd 8 hrw 28

8/3 : Aya   Gardiner VII 3

The Dual King, Merneferra has functioned in kingship for 23 years, 8 months and 18 days
nsw-bit mr-nrf-rꜤ ir.n=f m nsi.t rnpt 23 Ꜣbd 8 hrw 18

The tick above the hieratic ten-sign is clearly visible, accordingly the number cannot be 10, but instead 20 or 30, making the reading 23 or 33 years.1
1  Gardiner 1959. 16 (VII 3 a) and Ryholt 1997. 74

8/4 : Ini   Gardiner VII 4

The Dual King, Merhotepra, 2 years, 2-4 months and 9 days
nsw-bit mr-ḥtp-rꜤ rnpt 2 Ꜣbd 2 hrw 9

8/5 : Sewadjtu   Gardiner VII 5

The Dual King, Sankhenra Sewadjtu, 3 years, 2-4 months ░░
nsw-bit s-Ꜥnḫ-n-rꜤ s-wꜢḏ-tw rnpt 3 Ꜣbd 2 [...]

8/6 : Ined   Gardiner VII 6

The Dual King, Mersekhemra Ined, 3 years, 1 month, 1 day
nsw-bit mr-sḫm-rꜤ ind [...] rnpt 3 Ꜣbd 1 hrw 1

8/7 : Sewadjkara Hori   Gardiner VII 7

The Dual King, Sewadjkara Hori, 5 years ░░ 8 days
nsw-bit s.wꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ ḥrw-i rnpt 5 [...] hrw 8

8/8 : Sobekhotep VII   Gardiner VII 8

The Dual King, Merkaura Sobekhotep, 2 years ░░ 4 days
nsw-bit [...] mr-kꜢw [rꜤ...] sbk [...] rnpt 2 [...] 4

8/9 : Name lost   Gardiner VII 9
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 11 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 11 [...]

8/10 : Name lost   Gardiner VII 10
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit [...] 3 [...]

8/11 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


8/12 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


8/13 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


8/14 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

The horizontal fibres correspond with fr. 70, and vertically with fr. 81.1 Ryholt placed fr. 87 in 8/15, but agreed to move it up one line, 2 from line 15 to 14, affecting lines 8/14 to 8/17.
1  Ryholt 1997. 23
2  Ben-Tor 1999. 52, note 19.

8/15 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, Mer ░░ra
nsw-bit [...] mr [...] rꜤ

8/16 : Merkheperra   Gardiner VI 21
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, Mer-kheper-Ra ░░
nsw-bit mr-ḫpr-rꜤ [...]

8/17 : Merkara   Gardiner VI 22

The Dual King, Mer-ka-Ra ░░
nsw-bit mr-kꜢ-rꜤ [...]

The vertical position of fr. 88 is uncertain, but there is a fibre match with fr. 81, which assures the horizontal position.

8/18 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


8/19 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


8/20 : Mentuhotep V
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░dj░░
nsw-bit [...] ḏ [...]

The darker fragment is not present in Lepsius, but was added by Farina and presented in Gardiner as one fragment, The signs on this fragment are likely incorrectly drawn, as they were traced from his poor photo.

8/21 : ...mes

The Dual King, ...mes ░░
nsw-bit [...]-ms [...]

8/22 : ...maatra Ibi   Gardiner VII 13
...maatra Ibi
...maatra Ibi

The Dual King, ...maatra Ibi ░░
nsw-bit [...]-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ ibi [...]

8/23 : ...webenra Hor   Gardiner VII 14
...webenra Hor
...webenra Hor

The Dual King, ...webenra Hor ░░
nsw-bit wbn-[...]-rꜤ ḥrw [...]

8/24 : ...kara   Gardiner VII 15

The Dual King, ...kara ░░
nsw-bit [...]-kꜤrꜤ [...]

8/25 : Sankhptahi   Gardiner VII 16

The Dual King, ...qaenra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-ḳn-rꜤ [...]

8/26 : ...ra   Gardiner VII 17

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...] rꜤ [...]

8/27 : ...en(ra)   Gardiner X 29

The Dual King, ...enra ░░ nia ░░
nsw-bit [...] n-rꜤ [...] n-iꜢ [...]

Gardiner and Ryholt place fragment 134 at the bottom of col. 10, but both horizontal and vertical fibre corresprondences makes the placement at the bottom of col. 8 the correct one. Ryholt later agreed with this placement.1
1  Ben-Tor 1999. 49-50, note 3

8/28 : Summation of Dynasty 13   Gardiner X 30
Summation of Dynasty 13
Summation of Dynasty 13

░░ kings ░░
[...] nswyt [...]

Dynasty 14

9/1 — 10/21

9/1 : Nehesi   Gardiner VIII 1

The Dual King, Nehesy ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit nḥsi rnpt [...] 3 [...]

The Guinea fowl sign (G21) in the name is certain, as are the rest.1 The number is likely referring to days.2
1  Möller 1927. No. 229, 525, 432, 560, 457
2  Ryholt 1997. 198

9/2 : Khakherura   Gardiner VIII 2

The Dual King, Khatira ░░ 3 ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ.ti-rꜤ) [...] 3 [...]

The sign ti was most likely an error by the scribe, and should have been the very similar xrw1
1  Möller 1927. No. 381 vs 401.

9/3 : Nebfaura   Gardiner VIII 3

The Dual King, Nebfautra, 1 year, 5 months and 15 days
nsw-bit nb-fꜢw.t-rꜤ rnpt 1 Ꜣbd 5 hrw 15

9/4 : Sehabra   Gardiner VIII 4

The Dual King, Sehabra has functioned in kingship for 3 years, ░░ months and 1 day
nsw-bit s-ḥb-rꜤ ir.n=f m nswyt rnpt 3 Ꜣbd [...] hrw 1

The end of the long line from 8/3 encroaches the start of this line.

9/5 : Merdjefara   Gardiner VIII 5

The Dual King, Merdjefara 3 years ░░
nsw-bit mr-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 3+ḫ [...]

9/6 : Sewadjkara III   Gardiner VIII 6

The Dual King, Sewadjkara, 1 year ░░
nsw-bit swꜢḏ-kꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 1 [...]

9/7 : Nebdjefara   Gardiner VIII 7
Neb... (lacuna)
Neb... (lacuna)

The Dual King, Nebdjefara, 1 year ░░
nsw-bit nb-ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 1 [...]

9/8 : Webenra   Gardiner VIII 8

The Dual King, Webenra ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit wbn-rꜤ rnpt [...]

9/9 : Name lost   Gardiner VIII 9
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 1 year, 1(+x) months ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 1 Ꜣbd 1 [...]

9/10 : ...djefara   Gardiner VIII 10

The Dual King, ...djefara, 4 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]- ḏfꜢ-rꜤ rnpt 4

9/11 : ...benra   Gardiner VIII 11

The Dual King, ...benra ░░ 3 +X years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-bn-rꜤ [...] 3 [...]

9/12 : Awibra   Gardiner VIII 12

The Dual King, Autibra ░░ missing and 18 days ░░
nsw-bit Ꜣw.t-ib-rꜤ [...] wsf hrw 18

9/13 : Heribra   Gardiner VIII 13

The Dual King, Heribra, may he live, prosper (and be healthy) ░░ 29 days
nsw-bit hr-ib-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ wḏꜢ (snb) [...] hrw 29

9/14 : Nebsenra   Gardiner VIII 14

The Dual King, Nebsenra ░░ 5 months and 20 days, missing ░░
nsw-bit nb=sn-rꜤ [...] 5, hrw 20 wsf [...]

The missing king(s) cannot be identified. (Ryholt 1997: 12)

9/15 : ...ra   Gardiner VIII 15

The Dual King, ..ra. ░░ 21-24 days ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...] 21 [...]

9/16 : Sekheperenra   Gardiner VIII 16

The Dual King, Sekheperenra, ░░ 2 months and 1-5 days ░░
nsw-bit s-ḫpr-n-rꜤ [...] rnpt 2 [...]

9/17 : Djedkherura   Gardiner VIII 17

The Dual King, Djedkherura, ░░ 2 months and 5 days ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-ḫrw-rꜤ // rnpt 2 ... 5 [...]

9/18 : Sankhibra II   Gardiner VIII 18

The Dual King, Sankhibra, ░░ and 19 days ░░
nsw-bit s-Ꜥnḫ-ib-rꜤ [...] 19 [...]

9/19 : Nefertum..ra   Gardiner VIII 19

The Dual King, Nefertum..ra, ░░ and 18 days ░░
nsw-bit nfr-tm-rꜤ [...] 18 [...]

9/20 : Sekhem..ra   Gardiner VIII 20

The Dual King, Sekhem..ra, has functioned in kingship for ░░ months ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-//-rꜤ ir.n [...] ns.t [...] ibd

9/21 : Kakemura   Gardiner VIII 24

The Dual King, Kakemura, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit kꜢ-km.w-rꜤ [...] rnpt [...]

9/22 : Neferibra   Gardiner VIII 22

The Dual King, Neferibra ░░ may he live, prosper and be healthy, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit nfr-ib-rꜤ [...] snb rnpt [...]

9/23 : I..ra   Gardiner VIII 23

The Dual King, I..ra, may he live, prosper and be healthy, ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit i-[...]-rꜤ Ꜥnḫ-wḏꜢ-snb rnpt [...]

The top of fr. 101 was missing in Lepsius, but the signs are clearly visible in Farina's plate, suggesting it was restored by Ibscher or Farina in the 1930's.1
1  Farina 1938. pl. VIII.

9/24 : Khakara   Gardiner VIII 24

The Dual King, Khakara, ░░
nsw-bit ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ [...]

The fibres of fr. 123 corresponds with fr. 101.1 The upper part of Gardiner’s fr. 123 was not present in Lepsius; Ryholt did not comment the discarding of this tiny fragment, which I have designated as fr. 123* for now.2
1  Ryholt 1997. 24
2  See unplaced fragments below for more information.

9/25 : Akara   Gardiner VIII 25

The Dual King, Aakara, has functioned ░░
nsw-bit ꜤꜢ-kꜢ-rꜤ ir.n [...]

9/26 : Hapu   Gardiner VIII 26
Semenenra Hapu
Semenenra Hapu

The Dual King, Semenenra Hapu.. ░░
nsw-bit s-mn-n-rꜤ hp.w [...]

9/27 : Anati   Gardiner VIII 27
Djedkara Anati
Djedkara Anati

The Dual King, Djedkara, Nebnati ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-kꜢ-rꜤ nb-nꜤ-ti [...]

The V30-sign (nb) is likely a mistake for O29 (ꜤꜢ), which would yield the correct name Anati. The last sign is the determinative of a seated man (A1), not the walking legs (D54) which are very similar in hieratic.1
1  Ryholt 1997. 99

9/28 : Babnum   Gardiner IX 30
...kara Bebnum
...kara Bebnum

The Dual King, ...kara Bebnum
nsw-bit [...]-kꜢ bbnm [...]

9/29 : Name lost   Gardiner IX 31
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

9/30 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/1 : ...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit rꜤ-[...]

10/2 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

10/3 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

10/4 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

10/5 : ...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]

10/6 : ...ra

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]

10/7 : Senefer...ra

The Dual King, Senefer...ra ░░
nsw-bit s-nfr-[...]-rꜤ [...]

10/8 : Menibra

The Dual King, Menibra ░░
nsw-bit mn-ib-rꜤ [...]

10/9 : Djed...

The Dual King, Djed... ░░
nsw-bit ḏd-[...]

10/10 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

10/11 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

10/12 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

10/13 : Inek...   Gardiner IX 13

The Dual King, Inek... ░░
nsw-bit ink-[...]

10/14 : Ineb...   Gardiner IX 14

The Dual King, Ineb... ░░
nsw-bit inb-[...]

10/15 : Ip...   Gardiner IX 15

The Dual King, Ip...░░
nsw-bit ip-[...]

10/16 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/17 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/18 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/19 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/20 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/21 : Summation of Dynasty 14   Gardiner X /13
Summation of Dynasty 14
Summation of Dynasty 14

Total: X kings have reigned ░ years ░░
dmḏ nsw ... ir.n=sn rnpt ...

The position of this fragment is uncertain. Ryholt moved Gardiner's placement of the fragment down eight lines,1 with no mention as to why. No mention of any fibre correspondence. The traced signs are from the poor photo of Farina.2
1  Ryholt 1997. 25-6, fig. 11 p. 95
2  Farina 1938. pl. X

Dynasty 15

10/22 — 10/29

10/22 : Heading of Dynasty 15
Heading of Dynasty 15
Heading of Dynasty 15


Possibly contained the heading for the first Hyksos dynasty (XV).

10/23 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/24 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/25 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


10/26 : Khyan
Name lost
Name lost

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░ 10(+X) years
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...] rnpt 10 [...]

The number may be a 10, 20, or 30, as only a trace of the right leg of the ten-sign remain.1 The poor photo of Farina makes the tracing of the writing very uncertain.
1  Ryholt 1997. 119, note 398

10/27 : Apepi   Gardiner X 20
Name lost
Name lost

Ruler of foreign lands, ░░ 40(+X) years
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt [...] rnpt 40 [...]

Of the kings of this Dynasty, only Apepi is known to have ruled for more than 30 years, so this is normally ascribed to him. The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.

10/28 : Khamudy   Gardiner X 21

Ruler of foreign lands, Khamudy ░░
ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt ḫꜢmdwi [...]

The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.

10/29 : Summation of Dynasty 15   Gardiner X 29
Summation of Dynasty 15
Summation of Dynasty 15

Total: 6 rulers of foreign lands have reigned for the period of 100+x years ░░
dmḏ ḥḳꜢw-ḫꜢswt 6 ir.n=sn rnpt 100 [...]

The number 100 was most likely to have been followed by other numbers which are lost. The trace of the writing is uncertain, copied from the poor photo of Farina.

Dynasty 16

10/30 — 11/15

10/30 : Heading of Dynasty 16   Gardiner X 30
Heading of Dynasty 16
Heading of Dynasty 16


10/31 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/1 : Djehuty   Gardiner XI 1

The Dual King, Sekhem...ra, 3 years ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-[...]-rꜤ rnpt 3 [...]

11/2 : Sobekhotep VIII   Gardiner XI 2

The Dual King, Sekhemra ░░ 16 ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ-[...] 16 [...]

11/3 : Neferhotep III   Gardiner XI 3

The Dual King, Sekhemra S..░░ 1 year ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ s-[...] rnpt 1 [...]

11/4 : Mentuhotepi   Gardiner XI 4

The Dual King, Se...en...ra ░░ 1 year ░░
nsw-bit s-[...]-n-rꜤ-[...] rnpt 1 [...]

The reading Sewadjenra is preferable to Sankhenra of Gardiner,1 but both signs are missing essential strokes.2
1  Ryholt 1997. 154ff.
2  Gardiner 1959. 17 (XI 4 a)

11/5 : Nebirau I   Gardiner XI 5

The Dual King, Nebiriawra, 29 years ░░
nsw-bit nb-iri-Ꜣw.t-rꜤ rnpt 29 [...]

11/6 : Nebirau II   Gardiner XI 6

The Dual King, Nebitawra ░░
nsw-bit nb-it-Ꜣw-rꜤ rnpt [...]

The extra 't' was likely a scribal error, and should be a 'r' instead.

11/7 : Semenenra   Gardiner XI 7

The Dual King, Semenenra ░░ year ░░
nsw-bit s-mn-n-rꜤ [...] rnpt [...]

11/8 : Bebiankh   Gardiner XI 8

The Dual King, Seuserra ░░ 12 years, "missing" ░░
nsw-bit sw-wsr-rꜤ [...] rnpt 12 wsf [...]

The number of months is noted as missing.

11/9 : Sekhemra Shedwaset   Gardiner XI 9

The Dual King, Sekhemra Shedwaset, X year(s) ░░
nsw-bit sḫm-rꜤ šd-wꜢs.t rnpt [...]

11/10 : ...ra   Gardiner XI 10

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]

11/11 : Name lost   Gardiner XI 11
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

11/12 : ...ra   Gardiner XI 12

The Dual King, ...ra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-rꜤ [...]

11/13 : Name lost   Gardiner XI 13
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

11/14 : Name lost   Gardiner XI 14
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░
nsw-bit [...]

11/15 : Summation of Dynasty 16   Gardiner XI 15
Summation of Dynasty 16
Summation of Dynasty 16

Total: 5 kings ░░
dmḏ nsy.wt 5 [...]

Abydos Dynasty

11/16 — 11/31

11/16 : User...ra   Gardiner XI 16

The Dual King, User..ra ░░
nsw-bit wsr-[...]-rꜤ [...]

The name on this line, or 11/17, could belong to Senebkay, whose throne name was wsr-ib-ra.

11/17 : User...   Gardiner XI 17

The Dual King, User.. ░░
nsw-bit wsr-[...]

The name on this line, or 11/16, could belong to Senebkay, whose throne name was wsr-ib-ra.

11/18 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/19 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/20 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/21 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/22 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/23 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/24 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/25 : Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing
Papyrus missing


11/26 : ...hebra

The Dual King, ...hebra ░░
nsw-bit [...]-hb-rꜤ [...]

11/27 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, has functioned in kingship for ░░ 2 ░░
nsw-bit [...] ir.n=f m nswyt [...] 2 [...]

11/28 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 2 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 2 [...]

11/29 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 4 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 4 [...]

11/30 : Name lost
Name lost
Name lost

The Dual King, ░░ 3 years ░░
nsw-bit [...] rnpt 4 [...]

11/31 : ...enra

The Dual King, ░░ 3 years ░░
nsw-bit [...]-n-rꜤ [...] rnpt 3 [...]

Column 12

A portion at the end of the papyrus was cut off in ancient times, to be reused for other purposes. Since columns 10 and 11 both contain 31 lines, it is probable that column 12 also contained at least as many, but fewer is certainly possible. The estimated number of rulers between the late Second Intermediate Period and Ramesses II is somewhat uncertain, as we do not know the exact order, or number of rulers with absolute certainty. Hatshepsut would certainly have been included, but the confusion of the Late Amarna Period means there are still unsettled questions as to the succession.

Table 4: The rulers of the Seventeenth through Nineteenth Dynasties
XVII 9 Rahotep, Sobekemsaf I, Sobekemsaf II, Intef VI, Intef VII, Intef VIII, Senakhtenra, Seqenenra, Kamose
XVIII 15 Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV, Amenhotep III, Amenhotep IV, Neferneferuaten, Smenkhkara, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb
XIX 3 Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II
Sum 27

Adding all twenty-seven rulers from the table above, the remaining four lines could have held at least one heading and one summation of the NK, and a king or two of the Abydos Dynasty.


There are a number of fragments that cannot be placed with certainty, or had their position changed over time, as more thorough examinations of the papyrus were undertaken.

No. Description
1* This small fragment was attached at the rop right side of fr. 1 in Lepsius, but removed by Farina. Gardiner notes that 'it was rightly or wrongly removed.' (Gardiner 1959: 15, II 0)
2 Unplaced. Gardiner note that it certainly belong to the papyrus, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
4 Unplaced. Gardiner note that it belong to a heading or summation, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
7 Placed in column I as per Gardiner, who also marked it as unplaced, but noted that the position is doubtful. (Gardiner 1959: 17) It most likely belong somewhere in column 1–3.
29 Unplaced. Gardiner note that the recto has a heading in red and that it probably belongs, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
36 This fragment can be found in Lepsius, but shows the recto of the papyrus. Unfortunately there is no hieratic facsimile of the verso available. Joined to fr. 48 in col. 5. (Gardiner 1959: 17)
50 Unplaced. Gardiner note that it is written on a patch, probably from the top of a column, but leaves it unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 18)
59a Unplaced. This fragment was attached to the top right side of fr. 59 in Lepsius, but was moved to the left of fr. 59 by Ibscher or Farina. The position in the same horizontal position indicates that there is a fibre match, but Gardiner noted the position as doubtful. (Gardiner 1959: 16, V 1) I have designated it as 59a.
60 Unplaced. Only a part of the bee and the start of a cartouche. Not commented on otherwise by Gardiner.
66 Unplaced. Left in place by Gardiner, but he notes that it does not belong where Farina placed it. (Gardiner 1959: 17, X 21)
71 This fragment has no fibre correspondence with the surrounding fragments and Ryholt suggests it may be disregarded, while still placing it in col. 7, where I have left it. The placement is clearly to be regarded as uncertain. (Ryholt 1997: 22)
79a Unplaced. This fragment was published in Lepsius where it bridged fr. 78 and 79, but was removed by Farina and Gardiner, as the writing on the recto of the fragment made the placement impossible. Ryholt suggested that the removed fragment could be placed in col. 9 or 10, but this placement is uncertain, as he made no mention of a fibre match with any of the surrounding fragments. (Ryholt 1997: 26)
87 The horizontal alignment with fr. 70 is assured, as is the vertical alignment with fr. 81. However, the exact horizontal position in column 8 is uncertain as there is space available on all sides, and an accurate positon can not be established with certainty. (Ryholt 1997: 23)
88 The placement in col. 7 is assured due to matching fibres. The horizontal position is however uncertain, as there is no immediate match. The placement is of little importance as the fragment only contain the royal titles. (Ryholt 1997: 23)
90 Unplaced. (Gardiner 1959: 18, 19)
94* A small piece that is not present in Lepsius, but was added by Farina and presented in Gardiner as one fragment in column 8.
122 Unplaced. Placed in column 10 by Gardiner, it was left unplaced by Ryholt. The placement is of little importance as the fragment only contain the royal titles. (Ryholt 1997: 25)
123* Unplaced. The small fragment at the top of fr. 123 was not present in Lepsius. It was added by Farina, and is also present in Gardiner. Ryholt joins fr. 123 with fr. 101 of col. 9, discarding the addition by Farina without comment. Since the tiny fragment is not present in Lepsius, I have designated it as fr. 123* for now. (Ryholt 1997: 25)
125* Unplaced. The leftmost part of fr. 125 was incorrectly(?) placed in Lepsius as part of the fragment, as was the leftmost part of fr. 127, which belongs above the top of the same fragment, and joins with the left side of fr. 125.
134 Gardiner and Ryholt place this fragment at the bottom of col. 10, but both horizontal and vertical fiber corresprondences makes the placement at the bottom of col. 8 the correct one. Ryholt agreed with this placement. (Ben-Tor 1999: 49-50)
143 Unplaced. Months and days belonging to some unknown reign. (Gardiner 1959: 18)
145 Unplaced.
147 Unplaced. The fragment cannot join with fr. 150 as placed by Farina. (Gardiner 1959: 17, IX 29)
? Unplaced. From Gardiner X/14-15. Removed due to there being no fibre match with the other column X fragments. (Ryholt 1997: 118)


Royal Canon of Turin papyrus N. 1874 verso by Peter Lundström 2017. Press ENTER for full image.

Turin papyrus N. 1874 verso

Peter Lundström 2017
This facsimile was created from the plates of Lepsius (1842).
Note: Very large image.     Size: 8000x2167 (1 Mb)


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With 2335 hieroglyphic names of the pharaohs
© 2011-2017 by Peter Lundström — All Rights Reserved — V.2.02


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