Ramesses II in hieroglyphs

The third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Rameses II, Ramses II

Ramesses II is one of the most recognised pharaohs in Egyptian history, notable for his long reign, diplomatic activity, and the splendour of his monuments. He is most known for the Battle of Kadesh, his extensive construction at Luxor and Abu Simbel, and his colossal statues like the ones at the Ramesseum. The most prolific builder of the kingdom ever saw, his name can be found virtually everywhere a temple has been built. The sheer number and variants of his names has no rival.

Precedessor
Seti I

Successor
Merenptah

Reign of Ramesses II
AE Chronology1279–1213
v. Beckerath1279–1213
Shaw1279–1213
Dodson1279–1212
Arnold1290–1224
Malek1279–1213
Grimal1279–1212
Redford1304–1237
Manetho (Josephus)66y 2m
Manetho (Africanus)61 years
Manetho (Eusebius)66 years
Manetho (Jerome)66 years
Highest attestationYear 67

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht mery Ra  The Dual King User Maat Ra, setep en Ra  Son of Ra Ramessu mery Amun

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-C2-mr
Place de la Concorde obelisk North right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:H3
Horus name variant A1
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-ra:1-A40-N36
Place de la Concorde obelisk, West right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant A2
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-ra:1-A40-mr-i-i
Luxor obelisk, West left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant A3
Ka nakht mery Ra petpet khasut nebut kher tjebutef
kꜢ-nḫt-mri-rꜤ ptpt-ḫꜢswt-nb(w)t ḫr-ṯbwt.f
Strong bull, beloved of Ra, who has trampled all the foreign countries under his sandals
E1:D40-C2-mr-p*p:t*t:D40
Rhetorical stela (Tanis V, face C)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II 294:10
Petrie, Tanis, II, pl. III (81)
Horus name variant B1
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-C10A-mr
Place de la Concorde obelisk, North center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant B2
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-Aa11v:t-C10A-N36
Place de la Concorde obelisk, West left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant B3
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-Aa11v:t-C10A-mr-i-i
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant B4
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-mr-i-i-Aa11v:t-C10A
Mariette, Abydos, II, pl. 20a (1)
Horus name variant B5
Ka nakht mery Maat neb habu sed mi itef Ptah Tatenen
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt nb-ḥꜢbw-sd-mi-it.f-ptḥ-tꜢṯnn
The strong bull, beloved of Maat, possessor of Sed festivals like his father Ptah-Tatenen
E1:D40-C10A-mr-nb:O23D-Z3-mi-t:f:Z1:f-p:t-H-C18C
Blessing of Ptah, Karnak Pylon IX (west)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 259:2-4
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:H2
Horus name variant C1
Ka nakht sa Amun
kꜢ-nḫt imn-zꜢ
The strong bull, son of Amun
E1:D40-i-mn:n-zA&1
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant C2
Ka nakht sa Amun
kꜢ-nḫt imn-zꜢ
The strong bull, son of Amun
E1:D40-i-mn:n:H8*1
Luxor obelisk, North right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant C3
Ka nakht sa Atum
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ttm
The strong bull, son of Atum
E1:D40-zA&1-t:tm
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 501:4
Horus name variant C4
Ka nakht sa Atum
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-itm
The strong bull, son of Atum
E1:D40-zA-t:tm
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (44)
Horus name variant C5
Ka nakht sa Atum
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-itm
The strong bull, son of Atum
E1:D40-t:tm-H8:Z1
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 424:3 (1)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography IV, 20 (163)
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate XI (60)
Horus name variant C6
Ka nakht sa Tatenen
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ṯꜢ-tnn
The strong bull, son of Tatenen
E1:D40-C18C-H8:1
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 501:8
Horus name variant C7
Ka nakht sa Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ptḥ
The strong bull, son of Ptah
E1:D40-C20-H8:1
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (46)
Horus name variant C8
Ka nakht sa Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ptḥ
The strong bull, son of Ptah
E1:D40-C12-H8:1
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VI (43 B)
Horus name variant C9
Ka nakht sa Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt zꜢ-ptḥ
The strong bull, son of Ptah
E1:D40-p:t-H-H8:Z1
Petrie, Tanis, I, pl. IX (52), pl. VI (43 B)
Horus name variant D1
Ka nakht user pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-pḥty
The strong bull, strong of might
E1:D40-wsr-F9:F9
Place de la Concorde obelisk, North left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant D2
Ka nakht user pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-pḥti
The strong bull, strong of might
E1:D40-wsr-s-F9:F9
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VIII (50)
Horus name variant D3
Ka nakht wer pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wr-pḥty
The strong bull, great of might
E1:D40-wr:r-F9:F9
Place de la Concorde obelisk, West center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant D4
Ka nakht wer pehty
kꜢ-nḫt wr-pḥti
The strong bull, great of might
E1:D40-wr:F9*F9
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 424/3 (2)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , IV, 20 (163)
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate XI (60)
Horus name variant E1
Ka nakht mery user maat Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
E1:D40-C177-mr
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 405 (152A)
Petrie Hyksos and Israelite cities, plates XXIX-XXX
Horus name variant E2
Ka nakht mery user maat Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
E1:D40-C177-N36
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 152g
Horus name variant F
Ka nakht mery Ptah
kꜢ-nḫt mri-ptḥ
The strong bull, beloved of Ptah
E1:D40-p:t-H-mr
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (45)
Horus name variant G
Ka nakht mek Kemet
kꜢ-nḫt mk-kmt
The strong bull, protector of Egypt
E1:D40-G20-k:S32:t*O49
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20a (2)
Horus name variant H
Ka en sekhem Ra
kꜢ-n-sḫm-rꜤ
The powerful bull of Ra
E1:n-C2A-sxm
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (47)
Horus name variant I1
Ka nakht wer habu sed mery tawy
kꜢ-nḫt wr-ḥꜢbw-sd mri-tꜢwi
The Strong bull, great of Sed festivals and beloved of the Two Lands
E1:D40-wr:r-O23K:Z2-N36:N17:N17:N21*N21
Place de la Concorde obelisk, East right column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant I2
Ka nakht wer hebu sed
kꜢ-nḫt wr-ḥb-sd-3
The Strong bull, great of Sed festivals
E1:D40-wr:O23-Z2A
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 501:3
Horus name variant I3
Wer habu sed mi Tatenen
wr-ḥꜢbw(-sd)-mi-tꜢtnn
Great of Sed festivals like Tatenen
wr:r-O23P-1:2-mi-C18C
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , III, 111 (65)
University Museum of Philadelphia E 13566
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:H26
Horus name variant J1
Ka nakht aha her khepeshef
kꜢ-nḫt wr-nḫtw ꜤḥꜢ-ḥr-ḫpš.f
The strong bull, who has fought with his strong arm
E1:D40-wr:r-n:xt:x*t-Z2:D40-D34-D2-xpS:f
Place de la Concorde obelisk, East left column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant J2
Ka nakht aha her khepeshef
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤḥꜢ-ḥr-ḫpš.f
The strong bull, who has fought with his strong arm
E1:D40-D34-D2:Z1-xpS:D40:f
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant K
Ka nakht tjes tawy
kꜢ-nḫt ṯz-tꜢwi
The strong bull, who has governed the Two Lands
E1:D40-Tz:z:D40-N17:N17:N21*N21
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 420:9
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:H20
Horus name variant L
Ka nakht sedj setjetu
kꜢ-nḫt sḏ-sṯtiw
The strong bull, who shattered the Asiatics
E1:D40-s-d:N21*Z9:D40-S22:t*t-G4&Z2
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 605:15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:H24
Horus name variant M1
Ka nakht kheper netjer
kꜢ-nḫt ḫpr-r-nṯr
E1:D40-xpr:r-A40:1
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VIII (50)
Horus name variant M2
Ka nakht kheper sa netjer
kꜢ-nḫt ḫpr-sꜢ-nṯr
E1:D40-xpr:H8-A40
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 424:5 (1)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant N1
Ka nakht user Maat
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, strong of Maat
E1:D40-wsr-C10A
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 g
Horus name variant N2
Ka nakht user khepesh
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-ḫpš
The strong bull, strong with sword
E1:D40-wsr-T16A
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 d (3)
Horus name variant N3
Ka nakht user renput
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-rnpwt
The strong bull, rich in years
E1:D40-wsr-rnp-t:3
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 b (2)
Horus name variant N4
Ka nakht user renput Hefenu
kꜢ-nḫt wsr-rnpt ḥfnw
The strong bull rich in immesureable years
E1:D40-wsr-s-rnp-rnp-rnp-I8A-I8A-I8A
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 19 d
Horus name variant O
Ka nakht aa remu
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤꜢꜤ-rm-3
E1:D40-aA:a:H4*3
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 501:7
Horus name variant P
Ka nakht hui ta neb
kꜢ-nḫt ḥwi-tꜢ-nb
E1:D40-H-A24-N17:nb
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 424:6 (2)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant Q
Ka nakht aa shefyt
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤꜢ-šfit
The strong bull, great of majesty
E1:D40-aA:F7-t:3
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 424/5 (2)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant R1
Ka nakht hai her Maat
kꜢ-nḫt hꜤi-ḥr-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, who rejoiced Maat
E1:D40-H-a:y-D2-C10A
Headless statue of Ramesses II (Cairo museum JE 36652, CG 42140)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 586:9
Horus name variant R2
Ka nakht wetjes Maat
kꜢ-nḫt wṯz-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, who has upheld Maat
E1:D40-U39-C10
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 20 c (3)
Horus name variant S
Ka nakht em Ra sedjes tjetaw
kꜢ-nḫt m-rꜤ sḏ-sṯtiw
E1:D40-n:(ra:Z1)*A40-s-d:N21*Z9:D40-S22-t*G4*t:Z2
Place de la Concorde obelisk, East center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII a
Horus name variant T
Ka nakht sekhem pehty
kꜢ-nḫt sḫm-pḥti-nḫt
The strong bull, powerful of might
E1:D40-S42-F9*F9:D40
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 409:9
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:H9
Horus name variant U
Ka nakht men ib sekhem pehty
kꜢ-nḫt mn-ib sḫm-pḥti
The strong bull, decisive and mighty
E1:D40-mn:n:Y1-ib:Z1-sxm-F9*F9:t*t:D40
Luxor obelisk, West center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant V
Ka nakht qa hedjet
kꜢ-nḫt ḳꜢi-ḥḏt
The strong bull, whose White Crown is high
E1:D40-q-A28-S1
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 424:6 (1)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , IV, 20 (163)
Horus name variant W
Ka nakht seqa Waset
kꜢ-nḫt sḳꜢi-wꜢst
The strong bull, who has elevated Thebes
E1:D40-s-q-A28-R19
Luxor obelisk, North center column
Rosellini, I Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia, IV-1, plate CXVII b
Horus name variant X
Ka nakht seped abwy
kꜢ-nḫt spd-Ꜥbwi
The sharp-horned strong bull
E1:D40-M44-F16:F16
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VII (45)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:H17
Horus name variant Y
Ka en heqau mery Amun
kꜢ-n-ḥḳꜢw mri-imn
The strong bull of the rulers, beloved of Amun
E1:n-HqA-HqA-HqA-C12C-mr
Petrie, Tanis, I, plate VIII (48)
Horus name variant Z
Ka nakht waf khasut
kꜤ-nḫt wꜢf-ḫꜢswt
Strong bull, who has subdued the foreign lands
E1:D40-G45:f-D206:N25:t*Z2
Abu Simbel blessing of Ptah stela
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 259:11

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Mek Kemet waf khasut
mk-kmt wꜤf-ḫꜢswt
Protector of Egypt who curbs foreign lands
G20-k:I6-t:O49-G45-f:W:D40-N25:t*Z2
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:N1
Nebty name variant A1
Mek Kemet waf khasut Ra mes netjer gereg tawy
mk-kmt wꜤf-ḫꜢswt rꜤ-msi-nṯrw grg-tꜢwi
Protector of Egypt, who has subdued foreign lands, Ra whom the gods have borne, the founder of the Two Lands
Aa15:a:k-I6:t*O49-G45-f:D40-N25:t*Z2-C2-ms-s-nTrw-g:r-U17:Y1-N17:N17:N21*N21
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:N2
Nebty name variant A2
Mek Kemet, waf khasut
mk kmt wꜤf ḫꜢswt
Protector of Egypt, who has subdued foreign lands
G20-k:I6-t:O49-G45-f:D40-N25:N25:N25
Luxor obelisk, South face marginal
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 600:10
Nebty name variant B
Shesep netjeren Khepri
šzp-nṯri-n-ḫpri
The divine image of Khepri
s-O42B:p-A53-nTr-t:r:Z4-Y1:n-xpr:r-A41
Headless statue of Ramesses II (Cairo museum JE 36652, CG 42140)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:N3
Nebty name variant C
Wer shefit mek Kemet
wr-šfiy.t mk-kmt
Great of majesty, the Protector of Egypt
wr:r-F7:t-G20-k:I6-t:O49
Luxor Obelisk (west face)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 599:5
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:N4
Nebty name variant D
Hai her Maat mi Akhty
ḥꜤi-ḥr-mꜢꜤt-mi-Ꜣḫti
Who has rejoiced in Maat like Horakhty
V71-A28-Y1v-D2:t-Aa11v:t-mAat-mi-N27:t*Z4:O1*O1
Luxor Obelisk (south face)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 599:8
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:N6
Nebty name variant E
Semenekh menu em Ipet-resyt en itef imen di su her nesetef
smnḫ mnw m ipt-rsy(t) n it.f imn di sw ḥr nst.f
Who has made monuments splendid in Ipet-Resyt for his father Amun who put him on the throne
s-mn:n:x*mnx:mDAt-mn:nw*nw*nw:Aa15-O45:O1-M24-t:1-n:t:f-i-mn:n-X8-sw-w-(Hr:t-g:O1):f
Luxor pylon
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 605:11
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:N5
Nebty name variant F
Aha en hehu, mai sekhem-ib
ꜤḥꜢ n ḥḥw mꜢi sḫm-ib
Who has fought for millions, a stout-hearted lion
D34-D40:n-C11-1:3-E22-sxm-m&ib
Luxor obelisk, East face, center
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 602:15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:N7
Nebty name variant G
Aha her khepeshef, mek meshauef
ꜤḥꜢ ḥr ḫpš.f mk mšꜤw.f
Who has fought with his strong arm, the protector of his armies
D34-D40:D2*Z1-xpS:D40:f-Aa15:a:k-A12*Z3:f
Luxor pylon, east wing, north facade
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 605:15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:N8
Nebty name variant H
Sekher pehu su in pehwy ta
sḫr pḥw sw in pḥwy tꜢ
Who has felled those who attacked him and who has captured the ends of the earth
s-x:A15:D40-F22:D54-sw-W25-n:F22-W*Z4:N17
Place de la Concorde obelisk, South face, center
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 603:2
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:N9

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
User renput aa nehktu
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nḫtw
Rich in years, great in victories
wsr-s-rnp-rnp-rnp-aA:D40:Z2
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G1a
Golden Horus name variant A1
User renput aa nakhtu
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nḫtw
Rich in years, great in victories
wsr-s-rnp:I8A-rnp:I8A-rnp:I8A-aA:a:Y1-n:M3:x*t-G248:Z2
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 5 below
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:G1b
Golden Horus name variant A2
User renput aa nakhtu
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nḫtw
Rich in years, great in victories
wsr-s-rnp-rnp-rnp-aA:a:Y1-n:xt:x*t-D40:t*Z2
Luxor pylon IV East wing, South face
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II 352:11
Golden Horus name variant A3
User renput, aa nesyt mi itemu, ity, mes netjeru, sekheper tawy
wsr-rnpwt ꜤꜢ-nsyt mi itmw ity ms nṯrw sḫpr tꜢwy
Rich in years and great of kingship like Atum, the sovereign whom the gods fashioned, the one who has fostered the Two Lands
wsr-s-M4-M4-M4-O29v-sw-i-i-t:3-W19-i-t:U15:M-A304-i-ti-i-i-A23A-ms-s-A17-R8-A40:3-s-xpr:r-wAD-wAD
Karnak Temple of Amun, girdle wall
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II 583:4
Golden Horus name variant B1
User khepesh mery tawy
wsr-ḫpš mri-tꜢwi
Strong of might, beloved of the Two Lands
F12-F23:N36:N17:N17
Luxor obelisk, south face
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 599:8
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G3
Golden Horus name variant B2
User khepesh, mery tawy
wsr-ḫpš mry tꜢwy
Strong of might, beloved of the Two Lands
wsr-x*p:N37:F24-N36:N17:N17:N21*N21
Luxor pylon IV East wing, South face (upper)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions 352:13
Golden Horus name variant B3
User khepesh
wsr-ḫpš
Strong of might
wsr-x*p:N37:T16
Derr temple, Nubia
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II, 740:6
Golden Horus name variant B3
Aa khepesh mery tawy
ꜤꜢ-ḫpš mri-tꜢwi
Great of effectiveness, beloved of the Two Lands
aA:xpS-mr-i-i-N17:N17:N21*N21
Headless statue of Ramesses II (Cairo museum JE 36652, CG 42140)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 586:10
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 152-153, 3:G2
Golden Horus name variant C
Wekha mi imy Waset
wḫꜢ mi-imi-wꜢst
A pillar, like the one who is in Thebes
R16-mi-Z11-R19-A40
Luxor obelisk north center column
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 599:3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G4
Golden Horus name variant D
Hehy akhut en mes su
ḥḥ-Ꜣḫwt-n-msi-sw
Who seeks benefits for the one who bore him
H-H-y:D54-t&G25&x:Z2-N-ms-s-s
Luxor pylon, west wing
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 605:12
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G5
Golden Horus name variant E
Sekhem khepesh der pedjut 9
sḫm-ḫpš dr-pḏt-9
The powerful of arm, who has repelled the Nine Bows
sxm-Aa15:D40:xpS-d:r:D40-pD:t*3:3*3
Luxor pylon, west wing
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 605:15-16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G6
Golden Horus name variant F
Wer nakhtu her khaset nebet
wr-nḫtw-ḥr-ḫꜢst-nbt
Great of victories in every foreign country
wr:r-n:M3-G248-x:Z2-D2:Z1-N25:nb:t
Place de la Concorde obelisk, east center column
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 602:16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G7
Golden Horus name variant G
Wer fawet sekhem pehty
wr-fꜢwt sḫm-pḥti
Great of splendor and powerful of strength
wr:r:f-F40&W-t:3-sxm-F9*F9:D40
Luxor obelisk, east center column
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 603:2-3
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G8
Golden Horus name variant H1
Waf khasut der beshtu
wꜢf-ḫꜢswt dr-bšṯw
Who has subdued foreign countries and repelled the rebellious ones
G45-f:W:D40-N25:t*Z2-d:r:D40-b-N37:t*W-A14:Z2
Luxor obelisk west center column
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 599:5-6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:G9
Golden Horus name variant H2
Waf beshtu
wꜤf-bštw
Who has subdued the rebellious ones
G45:f-b-N37:t*A14A
Derr temple, Nubia
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions II 740:2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
ra-wsr-C10A-stp&n&ra
Saqqara Canon no. 1
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T9
Throne name variant A1
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
ra-C177-stp&n&ra
Abu Simbel
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 159.185ff
Throne name variant A2
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
ra-wsr-H6-stp&n&ra
ASAE , 9, 75
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T10
Throne name variant A3
User Maat Ra, setep en Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ stp-n-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, chosen of Ra
C59A-stp&n&ra
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 190
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T15
Throne name variant B1
User Maat Ra, tit Ra
esr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ tit-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, the (very) image of Ra
N5-C178-N5:D17
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 82:15
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 175d
Throne name variant B2
User Maat Ra, tit Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ tit-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, the (very) image of Ra
ra-C178-ra:D17&t
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 85:2
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 175a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T5
Throne name variant C1
User Maat Ra, neb khepesh
The justice of Ra is powerful, posessor of a strong arm/sword
ra-wsr-C10A-nb:xpS
CG 42143
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T12
Throne name variant C2
User Maat Ra, neb khepesh
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ nb-ḫpš
The justice of Ra is powerful, posessor of a strong arm/sword
ra-wsr-C10A-z:nb-xpS
CG 42142
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T13
Throne name variant D
User Maat Ra, heqa Waset
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ ḥḳꜢ-wꜢst
The justice of Ra is powerful, ruler of Thebes
ra-C178-HqA-q-R19
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 89:14
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 175a
Throne name variant E
User Maat Ra, iwa Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ iwꜢ-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, the heir of Ra
ra-C178C-ra:iwa
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 90:10
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 175a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T7
Throne name variant F
User Maat Ra, mery Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ mri-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful, beloved of Ra
ra-C178-ra*Z1:U7
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 91:1
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 175a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T8
Throne name variant G1
User Maat Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful
ra-wsr-C10A-z
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , VII, 26
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 717 (F)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 177
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T1
Throne name variant G2
User Maat Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful
ra-wsr-s-C10A
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , VII, 16
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 717 (E)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 177a+e (top)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T2
Throne name variant G3
User Maat Ra
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
The justice of Ra is powerful
ra-C178
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 82 (B)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 175d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:T4

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-ra:Z1-ms-s-sw
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 337
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E2
Birth name variant A1
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
C59\-C12I-N36:ms*s*s
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 190
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E1
Birth name variant A2
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-C2-ms-s-sw
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E3
Birth name variant A3
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
ra-i-mn:n:U7-ms*s-sw
Gardiner, The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate 70 (212)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E4
Birth name variant A4
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
ra-C12-ms-s-s-mr
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 337
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E5
Birth name variant A5
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-C2A-ms*s:z
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E6
Birth name variant A6
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
ra-i-mn:n:N36-ms-s-s
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 151
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E7
Birth name variant A7
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
mr\-C12\-C2-ms-s-sw
ASAE , 38, 217
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E8
Birth name variant A8
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:N36-C2A-ms-z:z
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , II, 10
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 154-155, 3:E9
Birth name variant A9
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
C12\-C2-N36-ms-s-sw
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 58, 177
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 156-157, 3:E10
Birth name variant A10
Ramessu mery Amun
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun
C177:N36-(ra:Z1)*ms*s:z
Mariette, Abydos, II, plate 19 d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 156-157, 3:E17
Birth name variant B1
Ramessu mery Amun, netjer heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-se mri-imn nṯr-ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun, divine ruler of Heliopolis
C12\-C2-N36-ms:z-HqA-nTr-iwn
CG 38429-30
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 156-157, 3:E12
Birth name variant B2
Ramessu mery Amun, netjer heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-se mri-imn nṯr-ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun, divine ruler of Heliopolis
C12\-C2-N36-ms-nTr-HqA-iwn-z:z
ZÄS , 70, 47
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 156-157, 3:E13
Birth name variant C
Ramessu mery Amun, merut mi Atum
rꜤ-msi-se mri-imn mrwti-mi-itm
Ramesses, the beloved one of Amun, like Atum
C12\-C2-N36-ms-s-sw-U7:r:t*Z4-mi-C98B
ASAE , 5, 114
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 156-157, 3:E15
Birth name variant D
Ramessu mery Amun, wer menu
rꜤ-msi-sw mri-imn we-mnw
Ramesses (Ra has fashioned him), beloved of Amun, great of monuments
mr\-C12\-C2-ms-s-sw-wr:mn:nw*nw*nw
Petrie, Tanis, I, pl. 5
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 156-157, 3:E16

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xix, 2 Ραψακης Rapsaces 61 years
Eusebius xix, 2 Ραμψης Rampses 66 years
Jerome Ramses 66 years
Josephus 97 Aρμεσσης Μιαμουν Armesses Miamun 66 years, 2 months
Diodorus 1.47.4 Οσυμανδυας Osymandyas

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 33–113
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 152–157
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 114–120
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 308–312
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