The division of pharaohs into dynasties is generally considered to be an invention by the Egyptian priest Manetho.
Whenever some discontinuity whether geographical, or genealogical ocurred, a new dynasty was assumed. Manetho's history of Egypt is the most comprehensive, but is only known by references to it made by subsequent writers. All ancient Egyptian king lists have significant gaps in their text, or fail to provide a complete list of rulers. Add to this that some dynasties overlapped, with more than one pharaohs of vying for supremacy at the same time, which leads to widely differing chronological interpretations. Over the three thousand years the Kingdom lasted, determining the exact reign-by-reign is not an easy task. The archaeological record is helpful at times—but it only goes so far—as chronological interpr etations are not always straightforward. Omissions of pharaohs for political and religious reasons abound, and conflicting information makes it all but impossible to determine the actual reign duration and order.
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.