Most reference books and journal articles concerning the Turin king list are old and rare, often out-of-print, and written in German, French, or Italian. Finding these often require luck and/or access to expensive services, and even if you manage to find it, it is written in a foreign language. This can be very frustrating, especially if that happen to be a much referenced text.
Below you will find these elusive texts—many appearing in English for the very first time.
The research of the scholars below varies in scope, from brief comments to fullfledged investigations that dig very deep into all the details. As the focus here is on the Turin king list, only the relevant parts of the larger examinations are excerpted, while the shorter, more concise texts are presented in full. Always consult the original source – if possible.
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.