Senusret III in hieroglyphs

The fifth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty, a.k.a. Senusret III, Senwosret III, Sesostris

Senusret III was perhaps the greatest pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty and was deified during his own lifetime. His name is known as Sesostris from Manetho and other ancient historians, which is a transcription corruption of Senusret into Greek. His throne name is present on the Abydos (63) and Saqqara (19) king lists, and his name was likely found at 6.24 on the Turin Canon, where the name unfortunately is lost, but a reign of 30+x years of reign is preserved.

Precedessor
Senusret II

Successor
Amenemhat III

Reign of Senusret III
AE Chronology1837–1819
v. Beckerath1872–1853
Shaw1870–1831
Dodson1881–1840
Arnold1878–1841
Malek1878–1859
Grimal1878–1842
Franke1837–1818
Redford1878–1843
Turin King List30+x years
Manetho48 years
Highest attestationYear 39

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Netjer kheperu  The Dual King Kha kau Ra  Son of Ra Senusret

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Netjer kheperu
nṯr-ḫprw
Horus, divine of form
nTr-xpr-w
Stela of Ikhernofret, (Berlin, ÄM 1204)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 135h
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 84-85, 5:H

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Netjeri mesut
nṯri-mswt
The Two Ladies, divine of birth
nTr-ms-w-t
Stela of Ikhernofret, (Berlin, ÄM 1204)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 135h
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 84-85, 5:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Kheper
ḫpr
The golden Horus has been created
xpr*G5:nbw
Stela of Ikhernofret, (Berlin, ÄM 1204)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 135h
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 84-85, 5:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Kha kau Ra
ḫꜤ-kꜢw-rꜤ
The Kas of Ra have appeared
ra-xa-kA*kA:kA
Abydos Canon no. 63
Stela of Ikhernofret, (Berlin, ÄM 1204)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 135h
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 84-85, 5:T1
Throne name variant
Kha kau Ra
ḫꜤ-kꜤw-rꜤ
The Kas of Ra have appeared
ra:xa-kA:Z2
Griffith, Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob (1898), pl. 21
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 84-85, 5:T3
Throne name variant
Kha ka Ra
ḫꜤ-kꜢ-rꜤ
The Ka of Ra has appeared
ra-xa-kA
Saqqara Canon no. 19

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 84-85, 5:T4
Throne name variant
Name missing
Turin King List 6.24
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) V:24

Birth name

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Senusret
s-n-wsrt
Man of Wosret
wsr-s-r:t:z:n
Stela of Ikhernofret, (Berlin, ÄM 1204)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 135h
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 84-85, 5:E

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xii, 3 Σεσωστρις Sesostris 48 years
Eusebius xii, 3 Σεσωστρις Sesostris 48 years
Herodotus 102.1 Σεσωστρις Sesostris
Diodorus 1.53.1 Σεσοωσις Sesoosis 33 years
Eratosthenes 34 Σιστοσιχερμης Sistosichermes 55

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 302–316
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 84–85
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 59
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 397–401
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