Ahmose I in hieroglyphs

The first pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Amasis, Amosis

Ahmose I succeeded his brother Kamose when he was only around ten years old, and his mother likely acted as regent for the first couple years. Manetho saw the expulsion of the Hyksos as an important enough event to mark it as a start of a new dynasty.
Manetho's first ruler of this new dynasty, was according to Africanus, Amos. or, according to Eusebius, Amosis. Josephus named him Tethmosis, probably because the epitome of Manetho that Josephus had access to contained errors not present in the epitomes used by Africanus or Eusebius.

Precedessor
Kamose

Successor
Amenhotep I

Reign of Ahmose I
AE Chronology1539–1515
v. Beckerath1550–1525
Shaw1550–1525
Dodson1549–1524
Arnold1550–1525
Malek1540–1525
Grimal1552–1526
Redford1569–1545
Manetho (Josephus)25y 4m
Manetho (Eusebius)25 years
Manetho (Jerome)25 years
Highest attestationYear 22

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Aa kheperu  The Dual King Neb pehty Ra  Son of Ra Iah mesu

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Aa kheperu
ꜤꜢ-ḫprw
Great of manifestations
aA:xpr*w
Cairo Museum stela CG 34001
ASAE , 4, 27
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:H1
Horus name variant
Aa kheperu
ꜤꜢ-ḫprw
Great of manifestations
O29v-xpr:Z2
Axe of Ahmose handle, CG 52645 (plate XLII)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:H2
Horus name variant
Ka em Waset
kꜢ-m-wꜢst
The bull in Thebes
E1-m-R19:t
Stela of Ahmose honouring Tetisheri, CG 34002
Ayrton, Currelly and Weigall, Abydos, III, (1904) plate LII
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:H3

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Tut mesut
twt-mswt
The (very) image of (re-)birth
t:t-A53-ms:t-w
Cairo Museum stela CG 34001
ASAE , 4, 27
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:N
Nebty name variant
Tut mesut
twt-mswt
The (very) image of (re-)birth
t:t-A53-ms*s-w-t
Axe of Ahmose handle, CG 52645 (plate XLII)

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Tjes tawy
ṯs-tꜢwi
The one who has bound the Two Lands
Tz:z:N17:N17
Cairo Museum stela CG 34001
ASAE , 4, 27
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:G
Golden Horus name variant
Tjes tawy
ṯs-tꜢwi
The one who has bound the Two Lands
Tz:N17:N17
Axe of Ahmose handle, CG 52645 (plate XLII)

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Neb pehty Ra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
The possessor of the might of Ra
ra-nb-F9
Bracelet of queen Ahhotep, CG 52069 (JE 4684)
ZÄS 136. 126–129, pl. XVII
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:T2
Throne name variant
Neb pehty Ra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
The possessor of the might of Ra
ra-F9-nb
Saqqara Canon no. 12
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , III, 471 (12)
Throne name variant
Neb pehty Ra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
The possessor of the might of Ra
ra-nb-F9:t*t
Abydos Canon no. 66
Cairo Museum stela CG 34001
ASAE , 4, 27
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:T1
Throne name variant
Neb pehty Ra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
The possessor of the might of Ra
ra:nb-F9-F9
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 34
Young, Hieroglyphics, II, plate 88
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:T3
Throne name variant
Neb pehty Ra
nb-pḥti-rꜤ
The possessor of the might of Ra
ra:nb-F9*F9:F9
Stela of Amenhotep I and Ahmose being adored, CG 34037 (JE 27573)
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , I2, 800
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:T4

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Iah mesu
iꜤh-msi(w)
Ahmose (Iah is born)
N12\R180-ms
Bracelet of queen Ahhotep, CG 52069 (JE 4684)
ZÄS 136. 126–129, pl. XVII
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:E3
Birth name variant
Iah mesu
iꜤḥms(iw)
Ahmose (Iah is born)
N12-ms-s
Cairo Museum stela CG 34001
ASAE , 4, 27
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:E1
Birth name variant
Iah mesu
iꜤh-msi(w)
Ahmose (Iah is born)
N12\R180-ms:z
Axe of Ahmose head, CG 52645 (plate XLIII)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:E2
Birth name variant
Iah mesu nakht
iꜤh-msi(w) nḫt
Ahmose (Iah is born) the victorious
N12\R180-ms-s-D40
Axe of Ahmose handle, CG 52645 (plate XLII)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:E4
Birth name variant
Iah mesu
iꜤh-msi(w)
Ahmose (Iah is born)
iaH-ms-s
Young, Hieroglyphics, II, plate 88
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:E5
Birth name variant
Iah mesu
iꜤh-msi(w)
Ahmose (Iah is born)
iaH-ms:z
Stela of Ahmose honouring Tetisheri, CG 34002
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:E6
Birth name variant
Iah mesu
iꜤh-msi(w)
Ahmose (Iah is born)
iaH-ms-s-i-i
Fabretti, Regio Museo di Torino. Antichita Egizie, no. 3032
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 1:E7

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 1 Aμως Amos
Eusebius xviii, 1 Aμωσις Amosis 25 years
Jerome Amosis 25 years
Josephus 94 Τεθμωσις Tethmosis 25 years, 4 months

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 175–196
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 132–133
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 95–96
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 9–11
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