Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt

The royal titulary of the Egyptian Pharaohs was the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. It symbolises their supremacy and holy might. The names were sometimes altered during the reign to mark an important event.

A drawing of a pharaoh

The knowledge to read and write hieroglyphs was lost by 450 CE, and would remain so until the 1820s, when the Rosetta Stone was deciphered, enabling the reading of the hieroglyphs again. Hieroglyphic writing does not normally indicate wovels, and in modern transcriptions, an 'e' is added between consonants to aid in their pronunciation. Since the ancient Egyptian language has been dead for two millennia, the knowledge of how the writing was actually pronounced can only be estimated.

To be consistent, the hieroglyphic sun disc ⊙ (Gardiner sign N5) is always transliterated as Ra on these pages, despite the use of Re being more common among Egyptologists, if also arbitrarily used. (i.e. Ramesses and Neferkare both inlude the N5-sign, but one as Ra, the other as Re.)

The combined names form the royal titulary, which consisted of the Horus, Nebty, Golden Horus, Throne, and Birth names. Some pharaohs are only known by one or two of the five names, and many remain to be assigned to the correct king. All known and most unidentified names of the pharaohs can be found here.

List of the Pharaohs

The pharaohs of ancient Egypt, from predynastic times up to and including the roman emperors, who were not pharaohs as such, but are included here because some of their names were inscribed on monuments using hieroglyphs. The chronological order of the pharaohs is difficult to determine because it has been more than 2,000 years since the last one ruled. The chronology of the pharaohs is comparable to putting together a complicated Jigsaw puzzle that is missing half of its pieces and has bits from many other puzzles mixed in that might or might not belong.

PeriodDynastyPharaohs
Archaic
Period
Predynastic Seka   Khayu   Tiu   Tjesh   Neheb   Wenegbu   Mekh
1 Narmer   Aha   Djer   Djet   Den   Adjib   Semerkhet   Qaa
2 Hotepsekhemwy   Nebra   Ninetjer   Wadjenes   Senedj   Sekhemib   Peribsen   Sneferka   Neferkasokar   Hudjefa I   Khasekhemwy
Old
Kingdom
3 Nebka   Djoser   Sekhemkhet   Hudjefa II   Mesochris   Nebkara   Neferkara   Huni
4 Sneferu   Khufu   Radjedef   Khafra   Menkaura   Shepseskaf   Baufra   Thamphthis   Hordjedef
5 Userkaf   Sahura   Neferirkara I Kakai   Shepseskara Netjeruser   Neferefra Isi   Niuserra Ini   Menkauhor Kaiu   Djedkara Isesi   Unas
6 Teti   Userkara   Pepi I   Nemtiemsaf I   Pepi II   Nemtiemsaf II
First
Intermediate
Period
7 No known names, only attested by Africanus/Eusebius
8 Netjerikara   Menkara   Neferkara II   Neferkara Neby   Djedkara Shemai   Neferkara Khendu   Merenhor   Neferkamin I   Nikara   Neferkara Tereru   Neferkahor   Neferkara Pepiseneb   Neferkamin Anu   Qakara Ibi   Neferkaura   Neferkauhor   Neferirkara II
9 Meribra Khety I   Neferkara III   Wahkara Khety II   Senen   Neferkara Khety III
10 Nebkaura Khety IV   Merikara   Sekhemkara I   Wadjkara   Ity   Imhotep   Hotep   Khui   Isu   Iytenu
Middle
Kingdom
11 Mentuhotep I   Intef I   Intef II   Intef III   Mentuhotep II   Mentuhotep III   Mentuhotep IV
12 Amenemhat I   Senusret I   Amenemhat II   Senusret II   Senusret III   Amenemhat III   Amenemhat IV   Neferusobek
Second
Intermediate
Period
13 Sobekhotep I   Sonbef   Nerikara   Sekhemkara Amenemhat   Ameny Qemau   Qemau Siharnedjheritef   Iufni   Sankhibra Amenemhat   Nebnun   Sewesekhtawy Sehotepibra   Sewadjkara   Nedjemibra   Sobekhotep II   Ranisonb   Hor I   Sekhemra Khutawy   Djedkheperu   Sebkay   Sedjefakara Kay-Amenemhat   Wegaf   Khendjer   Imyremeshaw   Intef IV   Meribra Seth   Sobekhotep III   Neferhotep I   Sihathor   Sobekhotep IV   Sobekhotep V   Sobekhotep VI   Wahibra Jaib   Aya   Ini I   Sewadjtu   Ined   Sewadjkara Hori   Sobekhotep VII   Merkheperra   Merkara   Mentuhotep V   Ibi   Hor II   Se..kara   Sankhptahi   Sekhaenra   Maara Sobekhotep   Senebmiu
14 Yakbim   Yammu   Qareh   Aahotepra   Sheshi   Nehesi   Khakherura   Nebfaura   Sehabra   Merdjefara   Sewadjkara III   Nebdjefara   Webenra   ..djefara   ..webenra   Awibra   Heribra   Nebsenra   Sekheperenra   Djedkherura   Sankhibra II   Nefertum..ra   Sekhem..ra   Kakemura   Neferibra   I..ra   Khakara   Akara   Hapu   Anati   Babnum   Senefer..ra   Men..ra   Djed..ra   Inek..   A..   Ap..   Wazad   Sheneh
15 Salitis   Sakir-Har   Khyan   Apepi   Khamudy   Aperanat   Semqen   Apachnas   Sharek   Beon
16 Djehuty   Sobekhotep VIII   Neferhotep III   Mentuhotepi   Nebirau I   Nebirau II   Semenenra   Bebiankh   Sekhemra Shedwaset   Dedumose I   Dedumose II   Mentuemsaf   Mentuhotep VI   Senusret IV   Pepi III   Nebmaatra   Anetjerira   Meribra   Nubankhra   Nikara II
17 Rahotep   Sobekemsaf I   Sobekemsaf II   Intef V   Intef VI   Intef VII   Senakhtenra   Seqenenra   Kamose
Abydos? Senebkay   Wepwawetemsaf   Pantjeny   Snaaib
New
Kingdom
18 Ahmose I   Amenhotep I   Thutmose I   Thutmose II   Hatshepsut   Thutmose III   Amenhotep II   Thutmose IV   Amenhotep III   Amenhotep IV   Neferneferuaten   Smenkhkara   Tutankhamun   Ay   Horemheb
19 Ramesses I   Seti I   Ramesses II   Merenptah   Seti II   Amenmesse   Siptah   Tausret
20 Setnakht   Ramesses III   Ramesses IV   Ramesses V   Ramesses VI   Ramesses VII   Ramesses VIII   Ramesses IX   Ramesses X   Ramesses XI
Third
Intermediate
Period
21 Smendes I   Amenemnesut   Psusennes I   Amenemope   Osochor   Siamun   Psusennes II
22 Shoshenq I   Osorkon I   Shoshenq II   Shoshenq IIb   Takelot I   Osorkon II   Shoshenq III   Shoshenq IV   Pami   Shoshenq V   Pedubast II   Osorkon IV
23 Takelot II   Pedubast I   Iuput I   Shoshenq VI   Osorkon III   Takelot III   Rudamun
24 Tafnakht   Bakenrenef
25 Piye   Shabaka   Shebitko   Taharqa   Tenutamen
Late
Period
26 Necho I   Psamtik I   Necho II   Psamtik II   Apries   Amasis   Psamtik III
27 Cambyses II   Darius I   Xerxes I   Artaxerxes I   Darius II   Artaxerxes II
28 Amyrtaeus
29 Neferites I   Akoris   Psammuthis   Neferites II   Muthis
30 Nectanebo I   Djedhor Teos I   Nectanebo II
31 Artaxerxes III   Arses   Darius III
Argead Alexander the Great   Philip III Arrhidaeus   Alexander IV
Ptolemaic Ptolemy I   Ptolemy II   Ptolemy III   Ptolemy IV   Ptolemy V   Ptolemy VI   Ptolemy VII   Ptolemy VIII   Ptolemy IX   Ptolemy X   Ptolemy XI   Ptolemy XII   Ptolemy XIII   Ptolemy XIV   Cleopatra VII   Ptolemy XV
Roman
Emperors
Roman Augustus   Tiberius   Caligula   Claudius   Nero   Galba   Otho   Vespasianus   Titus   Domitianus   Nerva   Trajanus   Hadrianus   Antoninus Pius   Marcus Aurelius   Lucius Verus   Commodus   Septimius Severus   Caracalla   Geta   Macrinus   Diadumenianus   Philippus Arabs   Trajanus Decius   Valerianus   Probus   Diocletianus   Maximianus   Galerius   Maximinus Daia
? Anather   Harsiese A   Ini II   Peftjauwybast   Pedubast III   Psamtik IV