Alexander the Great in hieroglyphs

The first pharaoh of the Argead Dynasty, a.k.a. Alexander III of Macedon

Precedessor
Darius III

Successor
Philip III Arrhidaeus

Reign of Alexander the Great
332–323
Dodson332–323

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Mek Kemet  The Dual King Setep en Ra, mery Amun  Son of Ra Aleksindres

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Mek Kemet
mk-kmt
The guardian of Egypt
G20-k:km*O49
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, IV, 4c
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:H1
Horus name variant
Heqa qeni
ḥḳꜢ-ḳni
The brave ruler
S-HqA-q:n:nw-D40
Karnak F 377 (room XXIX)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, IV, 3a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:H2
Horus name variant
Heqa qeni teken khasut
ḥḳꜢ-ḳni tkn-ḫꜢswt
The brave ruler who has attacked foreign lands
HqA-q:n:nw:D40-t:k:n:D54-N25:N25:N25
Sanctuary of Alexander facade at Akhmenu Hall in Karnak
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, Text III, 32
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:H3
Horus name variant
Heqa heqau nu ta er djeref
ḥḳꜢ ḥḳꜢw nw tꜢ (r) ḏr=f
The ruler of the rulers of the entire land
HqA-q-HqA-HqA-q-N33AV-nw-N33AV-N17:N34-r:f
Pedestal from the temple of Alexander at the Bahariya Oasis
Bosch-Puche, The Egyptian Royal Titulary of Alexander, JEA, 99, 134-136
Horus name variant
Tjema a
ṯmꜢ-Ꜥ
The sturdy-armed one
T:mA-a
Clepsydra fragment, Hermitage Museum no. 2507a
Bosch-Puche, The Egyptian Royal Titulary of Alexander, JEA, 99, 134

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Mai wer pehty itj dju tau khasut
mꜢi wr-pḥty iṯ ḏww tꜢw ḫꜢswt
The lion, great of might, who takes possession of mountains, lands, and deserts
E23-wr:r-F9:F9-V15-N25:N25:N33A-N17:N17:N33A-N25:N25:N33A
Pedestal from the temple of Alexander at the Bahariya Oasis
Bosch-Puche, The Egyptian Royal Titulary of Alexander, JEA, 99, 138-139

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Ka nakht khui baqet heqa wadj-wer shenu en Aten
kꜢ [nḫt] ḫwi BꜢḳ[t] ḥḳꜢ wꜢḏ(-wr) šnw n itn
The (strong) bull who protects Egypt, the ruler of the sea and of what the sun encircles
E1:n-i-w&x-D40-q:t-b-D10-HqA-M14-N35A-V9:Z1A-i-t:n:/
Pedestal from the temple of Alexander at the Bahariya Oasis
Bosch-Puche, The Egyptian Royal Titulary of Alexander, JEA, 99, 140-141

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Setep en Ra, mery Amun
stp.n-rꜤ mri-imn
Chosen by Ra and beloved of Amun
C2\-C12-stp:n:N36
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, IV, 4b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:T1
Throne name variant
Setep en Ra mery Amun
stp.n-rꜤ mri-imn
Chosen by Ra and beloved of Amun
mr\-C12A\-C2A-stp:n
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , II, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:T3

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Aleksindres
Ꜥlksindrs
Alexandros (Alexander)
A-l:k:z-i-n:d:r:z
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, IV, 4c
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:E1
Birth name variant
Aleksendres
Ꜥlksndrs
Alexandros (Alexander)
A-l:k:z-n:d:r:z
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, IV, 3a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:E2
Birth name variant
Aleksindres
Ꜥlksindrs
Alexandros (Alexander)
A-l:k-s-i-n:d:r:z
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, IV, 4a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 232-233, 1:E3

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 20 (1915): 199–203
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 232–233
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 175–176
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