Amenemhat III in hieroglyphs

The sixth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty, a.k.a. Amenemhet III

The reign of Amenemhat III is regarded as the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom, and he had the Great Canal built to link the Fayum with the Nile. His name in Manetho's king list is Lakhares or Lamaris, while Herodotus transcribed his name as Moerios, which Diodorus wrote as Moiris. His name is present on the Abydos and Saqqara king lists, and unfortunately the Turin Canon does not preserve his name, only a reign of 40+x years in location where his name would have been found.

Precedessor
Senusret III

Successor
Amenemhat IV

Reign of Amenemhat III
AE Chronology1818–1773
Shaw1831–1786
Dodson1842–1794
Arnold1844–1797
Malek1859–1814
Grimal1842–1797
Franke1818–1773
Redford1843–1797
Turin King List40+x years
Manetho8 years
Highest attestationYear 46

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Aa bau  The Dual King Ni Maat Ra  Son of Ra Amenemhat

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Aa bau
ꜤꜢ-bꜢw
Great of might
aA:G30
Stela of Sehotepibra (CG 20538 recto)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 140g
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:H1
Horus name variant
Aa bau
O29v:G30
Funerary stela CG 20536
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 138g

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Ity iwat tawy
iṯi-iwꜢt-tꜢwi
He who inherited the Two Lands
V15:F44-N17:N17
Funerary stela CG 20536
Nebty name variant
Itj iwat tawy
iṯi-iwꜢt-tꜢwi
He who inherited the Two Lands
iTi:t-E9:a-iwa:t:N17:N17
ASAE , 3, 206-8
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:N2
Nebty name variant
Ity iwat her
iṯi-iwꜢt-ḥr
He who inherited the Two Lands
iTi:t-E9:a-t:Z2:N31
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 138g
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:N3

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Wah ankh
wꜤḥ-Ꜥnḫ
Enduring of life
G5-wAH*anx:nbw
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 138g
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:G3
Golden Horus name variant
Wah ankh
wꜢḥ-Ꜥnḫ
Enduring of life
wAH*anx*G5:nbw
ASAE , 3, 206-8
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-mAat
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 138g
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:T1
Throne name variant
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-H6
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 139d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:T4
Throne name variant
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra-C10A-n
Saqqara Canon no. 20
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , III, 481 (20)
Throne name variant
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-U4-a:t
Abydos Canon no. 64
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 179 (64)
Throne name variant
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-mA-Aa11:t
Pyramidion in Cairo Museum
ASAE , 3,207 (JE 35122)
Throne name variant
Name missing
Turin King List 6.25
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) V:25

Birth name

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in front
i-mn:n-m-HAt:t
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 138g
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 6:E

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xii, 4 Λαχαρης Lachares 8 years
Eusebius xii, 4 Λαμαρις Lamaris 8 years
Herodotus 101.1 Μοιριος Moerius
Diodorus 1.51.5 Μοιρις Moeris
Eratosthenes 35 Μαρης Mares 43

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 319–337
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 86–87
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 59
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 26–29
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