Amenmesse in hieroglyphs

The sixth pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Amenmesses, Amenmose

Amenmesse somehow managed to usurp the throne at Thebes and parts of Upper Egypt from Seti II, but it only lasted a year or two before he was ousted and presumably killed.

Precedessor
Seti II

Successor
Siptah

Reign of Amenmesse
AE Chronology1202–1200
v. Beckerath1203–1200
Dodson1200–1196
Malek1203–1200
Grimal1202–1199
Redford1226–1221
Manetho (Africanus)5 years
Manetho (Eusebius)26 years
Manetho (Jerome)26 years
Highest attestationYear 4

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht mery Maat semen tawy  The Dual King Men mi Ra, setep en Ra  Son of Ra Amenmesse heqa Waset

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht mery Maat semen tawy
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt-smn-tꜢwi
Strong bull, beloved of Maat, he who strengthen the Two Lands
E1:D40-mAat-mr-U32-n:N17:N17:N21*N21
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 204e
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:H3
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Maat semen [tawy]
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt-smn-tꜢwi
Strong bull, beloved of Maat, he who strengthen [the Two Lands]
E1:D40-U7:i*i-C10A-s-Y1:n-Y1v-U32-[[-#b-N17:N17:N21*N21-#e-]]
Grapow, Ägyptologische Studien, VIO 29 (1955), 19
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:H2
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Maat semen tawy
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt-smn-tꜢwi
Strong bull, beloved of Maat, he who strengthen the Two Lands
E1:D40-mAat-mr-i-i-mn:n:Y1-U32-M127-[[-#b-wAD-#e-]]
Grapow, Ägyptologische Studien, VIO 29 (1955), 19
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:H1

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Wer biaut mi Ipet-sut
wr-biꜢwt-m-ipt-swt
He who is great of miracles in Karnak Temple
wr:r-b-i-A-i-t-i-U16A:Aa15-i-p:t-st-Z2:O49
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , IV, 198
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Aa khepesh, saa waset en mes su
ꜤꜢ-ḫpš sꜤꜢ wꜢst n ms sw
The one great of might, who has magnified Thebes for the one who bore him
aA:xpS-s-aA:a-R19-t:O49-n:ms*s*sw
Hardwick, The Golden Horus Name of Amenmesse?, JEA 92 (2006), 255-260
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Men mi Ra, setep en Ra
mn-mi-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Eternal like Ra, the chosen one of Ra
ra:mn-mi-i-stp&n&ra
Valley of Kings, tomb KV 10, gate B
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 202e
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:T1
Throne name variant
Men mi Ra, setep en Ra
mn-mi-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Eternal like Ra, the chosen one of Ra
U6\-C12\-C2-mn:stp&n&ra-mi
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 202d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:T2

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Amenmesse heqa Waset
imn-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-wꜢst
Amenmesse, the Ruler of Thebes
C12-ms-s-s-HqA-q-R19
Valley of Kings, tomb KV 10, gate B
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 202e
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:E1
Birth name variant
Amenmesse mery Ra heqa Waset
imn-msi-sw mri-rꜤ ḥḳꜤ-wꜢst
Amenmesse, the beloved of Ra and Ruler of Thebes
C2\-C12-ms-z:z-HqA-R19-N36
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 202d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 158-159, 5:E2

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xix, 5 Aμμενεμνης Ammenemnes 5 years
Eusebius xix, 4 Aμμενεμης Ammenemes 26 years
Jerome 43 Ammenes 26 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 127–130
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 158–159
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 123–124
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 50–52
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