Apepi in hieroglyphs

The fourth pharaoh of the Fifteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Nebkhepeshre, Aqenenre, Aweserre, Apophis

It was once believed that there were two separate kings named Apepi, but it is now known that there was only one. For unknown reasons, he changed his name twice during his reign.

Precedessor
Khyan

Successor
Khamudy

Reign of Apepi
AE Chronology1575–1540
Ryholt1581–1541
Shawc. 1555
Dodson1585–1545

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Sehotep tawy  The Dual King Neb khepesh Ra  The Dual King Aa qen en Ra  The Dual King Aa user Ra  The Dual King Aa user Ra  The Dual King Heqa en hut Waret, Aa user Ra  Son of Ra Apopi  Son of Ra Apopi  Son of Ra Apopi  Son of Ra Apopi

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Sehotep tawy
sḥtp-tꜢwi
The one who has pacified the Two Lands
s-Htp:t*p-N17:N17
Offering table, (Cairo Museum, CG 23073, JE 39605)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:H

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Neb khepesh Ra
nb-ḫpš-rꜤ
Possessor of the strong arm of Ra
ra:nb-xpS
Early reign
Dagger in Luxor Museum, (CG 52768, JE 32735)
ASAE , 7, 119
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 116-117, e:T1
Throne name variant
Aa qen en Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḳni.n-rꜤ
The great one, whom Ra has made brave
ra-aA:a-q:n:n
Middle reign
Offering table, (Cairo Museum, CG 23073, JE 39605)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:T1
Throne name variant
Aa user Ra
ꜤꜢ-wsr-rꜤ
The great one, whom Ra has made strong
ra-aA:Z1:a:Y1-F78-s
Late reign
Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 15, 494ff (XVII)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:T2
Throne name variant
Aa user Ra
ꜤꜢ-wsr-rꜤ
The great one, whom Ra has made strong
ra:aA-wsr
Late reign
Vase, Metropolitan Museum, 21.7.7
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 3, plate 21 (1)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:T3
Throne name variant
Heqa en hut Waret, Aa user Ra
ḥḳꜢ n ḥwt-wꜤrt ꜤꜢ-wsr-rꜤ
The ruler of Avaris, Aauserra
HqA-q:Y1:n-O6:t-D56-t:n-ra-aA:a-wsr-s
Habachi, The second Stela of Kamose, pl. 7, rows 19-20

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:T4

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Apopi
i-p-p
i-p:p
Early reign
ASAE , 7, 119
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:E1
Birth name variant
Apopi
ippi
i-A2-p:p-i
Red granite jar, Berlin ÄM 20366
Naville, Bubastis, plate XXXV (C)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:E2
Birth name variant
Apopi
ippi
i-A2-p:p-i-A14
Habachi, The second Stela of Kamose, pl. 7, row 20
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:E3
Birth name variant
Apopi
ipp(i)
i-A2-p:p
ZÄS , 39, 86
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 114-115, 5:E4

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xv, 6 Aφοβις Aphobis 61 years
Eusebius xvii, 3 Aφωφις Aphophis 14 years
Josephus 80 Aπωφις Apophis 61 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 139–143
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 114–115
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 82
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 58–60
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