Den in hieroglyphs

The fifth pharaoh of the First Dynasty, a.k.a. Dewen, Udimu

The Horus name Den is unlikely to be an accurate realisation. The meaning of the name is as obscure as its proper pronouncation. He was the first pharaoh to use the title nswt-bjtj (king of Upper and Lower Egypt.) The name of the fifth ruler on Abydos king list is Sepati, consisting of two N24 signs, which were likely misread in later periods instead of N25. Likewise, the name on the Turin papyrus, Qenty, has the sign Aa8 (qn) which is a probably a corruption of sign N24 (spAt) or N25 (xAstj) both known from other names of Den.

Precedessor
Djet

Successor
Adjib

Reign of Den
AE Chronology2814–2772
v. Beckerath2914–2867
Malek2879–2832
Grimal3050–2995
Turin King List74 years
Manetho20 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King

Horus Den  The Dual King Sepati*

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Den
d-n
The slaughterer
d:n
Jar label with "Jubilee scene," British Museum EA 32650
Petrie, Royal Tombs, I, plates XIV, XV, XXI
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 38-39, 5:H

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Iaret nebu shen
iꜤr.t-nbw-šn
Golden cobra
I12-nbw:V9
Petrie, Royal Tombs, II, plate VII (12)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 38-39, 5:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Khasty
ḫꜢsti
He of the Two Deserts
N25:N25-t
Petrie, Royal Tombs, I, plate V (8-9, 11-12)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 38-39, 5:N
Throne name variant
Sepati*
spꜢti
He of the great districts
N24-N24
Abydos Canon no. 5
Mariette, Abydos, I, plate 43 (5)
The signs for desert (N25) were likely misread during the NK as districts (N24)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 38-39, 5:1
Throne name variant
Qenti*
ḳnti
qn:t*y
Papyrus Ebers, Plate XXIX recto, Column 103.2
Turin King List 3.16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 38-39, 5:2
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) II:16

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus i, 5 Ουσαφαιδoς Usaphaidus 20 years
Eusebius i, 5 Ουσαφαης Usaphais 20 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 6–9
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 38–39
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 26
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 78–80
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