Horemheb in hieroglyphs

The fifteenth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Horemhab, Haremhab

Horemheb was commander in chief of the army and the designated heir to Tutankhamun. The vizier Ay managed to seize power when Tutankhamun died suddenly, probably while Horemhab was abroad with the army. However, Ay died after only a few years reign, and Horemheb finally ascended the throne. It is not known how he managed it, but presumably it was well known that he was the intended heir to Tutankhamun.

Horemeb initiated a return to religious normalcy by restoring the old gods to power, reducing the worship of Aten introduced by Akhenaten to rubble. He furthermore started erasing all traces of their reign and history, and was very successful, as the Amarna period kings were more or less forgotten.

Horemheb might be the Armaa mentioned in a historical text of the Hittite king Mursili II, written when Horemheb was the commander of the armies of Asia, before he became pharaoh. This name seems quite similar to the Armais/Armesis of Manetho.

Horemheb failed to produce a son, so instead he appointed his vizier, Paramessu, to succeed him, which he did as Ramesses I.

Precedessor
Ay

Successor
Ramesses I

Reign of Horemheb
AE Chronology1319–1292
v. Beckerath1321–1294
Shaw1323–1295
Dodson1328–1298
Arnold1335–1308
Malek1323–1295
Grimal1323–1295
Redford1343–1315
Manetho (Josephus)4y 1m
Manetho (Africanus)5 years
Manetho (Eusebius)5 years
Manetho (Jerome)5 years
Highest attestationYear 27

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht seped sekheru  The Dual King Djoser kheperu Ra, setep en Ra  Son of Ra Horemhab

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht seped sekheru
kꜢ-nḫt spd-sḫrw
The Strong bull, whose plans are clever
E1:D40-M44-s-x:r-Y1:Z2
Medinet Habu stele fragment
ASAE , 17, 85
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 112d
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:H
Horus name variant
Ka nakht seped sekheru
kꜢ-nḫt spd-sḫrw
The Strong bull, whose plans are clever
E1:D40-M44-s-x:r:Z2
Coronation inscription on Turin statue C.1379
Gardiner. 1953. "The coronation of King Haremhab". JEA 39. 13-31, pl. II

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Wer biat em ipetsut
wr-biꜢwt-m-ipt-swt
Great of marvels in Ipetsut (Karnak)
wr:r-U16A:t*Z2-m-i-p:t-st-st-Q1
Medinet Habu stele fragment
ASAE , 17, 85
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Hor her Maat, sekheper tawy
hrw-ḥr-mꜢꜤt sḫpr-tꜢwi
Pleased with Maat, who (re)-created the Two Lands
h:r:Y1-D2:Z1-mAat-s-xpr:N17:N17
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 2113
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Djoser kheperu Ra, setep en Ra
ḏsr-ḫprw stp-n-rꜤ
The sacred one of the manifestations of Ra, chosen of Ra
ra:Dsr-xpr:Z2-stp&n&ra
Abydos Canon no. 74
Saqqara Canon no. 4
Karnak pylon IX
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 112b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:T1
Throne name variant
Djoser kheperu Ra, heqa Maat
ḏsr-ḫprw-rꜤ ḥḳꜢ-mꜢꜤt
The sacred one of the manifestations of Ra, ruler of Maat
ra:Dsr-HqA-xpr-Sw-Z2*ra:stp:n
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 119f
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:T2
Throne name variant
Djoser kheperu en Ra
ḏsr-ḫprw-n-rꜤ
The sacred one of the manifestations of Ra
ra:Dsr-xpr:Z2-n
Marseille stela 17 and 26
de Saulcy, Mémoires de l'Académie nationale de Metz, 1864, Pt. 2, 257-358

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Horemhab
ḥr-m-ḥꜢb
Horus is in jubilation
G5-Aa15:Hb-A42A
Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 39, plate II, row 15 (as hereditary prince)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:E1
Birth name variant
Horemhab meren Amun
ḥr-m-ḥꜢb mri.n-imn
Horemheb, whom Amun has loved
i-mn:n:U7-G5-S3-Aa15:W3
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 119-122
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:E2
Birth name variant
Horemhab meren Amun
ḥr-m-ḥꜢb mri.n-imn
Horemheb, whom Amun has loved
i-mn:n:U7-G5-n:Aa15:W3
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 120b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:E3
Birth name variant
Horemhab meren Amun
ḥr-m-ḥꜢb mri.n-imn
Horemheb, whom Amun has loved
i-mn:n:N36-G5-n:Aa15:W3
Medinet Habu stele fragment
ASAE , 17, 85
Birth name variant
Horemhab meren Amun
ḥr-m-ḥꜢb mri.n-imn
Horemheb, whom Amun has loved
i-mn:n-G5-m-W3:ra-U7:n
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 2170
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 146-147, 14:E5

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 14 Aρμεσης Armeses 5 years
Eusebius xviii, 14 Aρμαις Armais 5 years
Jerome Armais also called Danaus 5 years
Josephus 97 Aρμαις Armais 4 years, 1 month

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 381–396
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 146–147
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 107
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 115–118
PLEASE NOTE
There might be errors on this page.
Make sure you use the correct source!
Yes, you would be surprised...