Menkaura in hieroglyphs

The fifth pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, a.k.a. Menkaure, Mykerinos, Mycerinus

According to Africanus, Manetho named Mencheres (Menkaura) as the successor of king Bicheris, but according to the archaeological records, he was the successor of Khafra. Eusebius' record of Manetho's fourth dynasty only mentions one king by name; Soyphis (Khufu). The fourth dynasty in the Turin papyrus is heavily damaged, but Khafra can be read in 4.12. The name that would occupy 4.14 mentions a reign of at least 28 years, which can hardly be anyone but Menkaura.

Precedessor
Khafra

Successor
Shepseskaf

Reign of Menkaura
AE Chronology2447–2442
v. Beckerath2514–2486
Shaw2532–2503
Dodson2414–2396
Allen2490–2472
Arnold2472–2454
Malek2488–2460
Redford2551–2523
Turin King List28+ years
Manetho (Africanus)63 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King

Horus Ka khet  The Dual King Men ka Ra

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka khet
kꜢ-ẖt
The bull of the (divine) Corporation
kA-E1:X
Legrain, Achats à Louqsor, ASAE 4 (1903): 134
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54-55, 6:H1
Horus name variant
Ka khet
kꜢ-ẖt
The bull of the (divine) Corporation
kA-D52:X
Kaplony Die Rollsiegel des Alten Reiches, II, plate XXXIV
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54-55, 6:H2

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Ka
kꜢ
The bull (by means) of the Two Ladies
kA-E1
Legrain, Achats à Louqsor, ASAE 4 (1903): 134
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54-55, 6:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Netjery bik nebu
nṯr-bik-nbw
The golden falcon is divine
nTr*G7:nbw
Aegyptische Inschriften aus den Königlichen Museen zu Berlin, (19999)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54-55, 6:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Men ka Ra
mn-kꜢ-rꜤ
The established one of the ka of Ra
ra-mn-kA
Kaplony Die Rollsiegel des Alten Reiches, II, plate XXXV
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54-55, 6:E2
Throne name variant
Men kau Ra
mn-kꜢw-rꜤ
The established one of the kas of Ra
ra:mn-kA*kA:kA
Saqqara Canon no. 39
(only attested by Mariette in 1864.)
George Fraser, “The early tombs at Tehneh”, ASAE 3 (1903) 122-130, pl. IV (p. 192f)
Urk I 24-25
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54-55, 6:E1
Throne name variant
Men kau Ra*
mn-kꜢw-rꜤ
The established one of the kas of Ra
ra-mn:n-kA:Z2
Abydos Canon no. 24

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54-55, 6:E3
Throne name variant
Name missing
..
Turin King List 4.14
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) III:14

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus iv, 4 Mενχερης Mencheres 63 years
Herodotus 129 Μυκερινον Mycerinos
Diodorus 1.64.6 Μυκερινος Mycerinus
Eratosthenes 17 Μοσχερως Moscheres 31

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 95–100
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 54–55
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 36
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 200–202
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