Mentuhotep III in hieroglyphs

The sixth pharaoh of the Eleventh Dynasty, a.k.a. Montuhotep III

The ankh sign in Mentuhotep III's throne name S-ankh-ka-ra might have been erroneously inscribed as the similar looking nefer on the Karnak king list. This would explain pharaoh Sneferkara is sitting just behind Mentuhotep II instead of Sankhkara.

Precedessor
Mentuhotep II

Successor
Mentuhotep IV

Reign of Mentuhotep III
AE Chronology1958–1947
v. Beckerath1995–1983
Shaw2004–1992
Dodson2014–2001
Malek1999–1987
Grimal2009–1997
Franke1957–1945
Redford2000–1998
Turin King List12 (years)

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Sankh tawyf  The Dual King Sankh ka Ra  Son of Ra Mentuhotep

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Sankh tawyf
sꜤnḫ-tꜢwi.f
The one who invigorates the Two Lands
s-anx-N17:N17:f
Hammamat inscription
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §34
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 150a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 80-81, 6:H

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Sankh tawyf
sꜤnḫ-tꜢwi.f
The one who invigorates the Two Lands
s-anx-N17:N17:f
Hammamat inscription
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §34
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 150a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 80-81, 6:N

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Bik nebu hotep
bik-nbw-ḥtp
The one who is satisfied
Htp*G5:nbw
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §34
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 80-81, 6:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Bik nebu menkh
bik-nbw-mnḫ
mnx*G5:nbw
Hammamat inscription
Prisse d'Avennes, Monuments Égyptiens, plate VI
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 150a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 80-81, 6:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Sankh ka Ra
s-Ꜥnḫ-kꜢ-rꜤ
The one whom the ka of Ra has sustained
ra-s-anx-kA
Abydos Canon no. 58
Saqqara Canon no. 14

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 80-81, 6:T1
Throne name variant
Sankh ka..
s-Ꜥnḫ-kꜢ..
s-anx-n:x-kA
Turin King List 6.17
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) V:17
Throne name variant
Snefer ka Ra
s-nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
The one whom the ka of Ra has made perfect
ra-s-nfr-kA
Karnak Canon no. 30
Error by scribe: wrote nefer insted of ankh.
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 80-81, 6:T2

Birth name

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Mentuhotep
mnṯw-ḥtp
Montu is content
mn:n:T-w-Htp:t*p
Bibliotheca Aegyptica, X, §34
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 80-81, 6:E

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 243–246
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 80–81
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 55
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 227–229
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