Neferusobek in hieroglyphs

The eighth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty, a.k.a. Sobekneferu

Neferusobek is the first queen of Egypt that can be verified to actually have ruled as a pharaoh. Her name is present in Manetho's king list as Skemiophris, which is a transcription into Greek of her birth name. Her name is also found in the Turin Canon preserving her reign as 3 years, 10 months and 24 days. Her throne name is found on the Saqqara king list number 22, and her birth name might have occupied Karnak king list number 22.

Precedessor
Amenemhat IV

Successor
Sobekhotep I

Reign of Neferusobek
AE Chronology1763–1760
v. Beckerath1798–1794
Shaw1777–1773
Dodson1785–1781
Arnold1787–1783
Malek1805–1801
Grimal1790–1785
Franke1763–1759
Redford1790–1786
Turin King List3y 10m 24d
Manetho (Africanus)4 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Meryt Ra  The Dual King Sobek ka Ra  Son of Ra Sobek neferu Ra

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Meryt Ra
mri-t-rꜤ
Beloved of Ra
ra:Z1-U7:t
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (British Museum EA16581)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:H2
Horus name variant
Meryt Ra
mry.t-rꜤ
Beloved of Ra
ra-mr-i-i-t
ASAE 52, pl. 15
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:H1

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Sat sekhem nebet tawy
sꜢt-sḫm-nbt-tꜢwi
Daughter of the powerful one, mistress of the Two Lands
zA&t-sxm-nb:t:N17:N17
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (British Museum EA16581)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Djedet khau
ḏdt-ḫꜤw
Established of crowns
Dd*(t:xa)*G5:nbw
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (British Museum EA16581)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:G

Throne name

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Sobek ka Ra
sbk-kꜢ-rꜤ
Sobek is the Ka of Ra
ra-I4-kA
Saqqara Canon no. 22

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:T

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Sobek neferu Ra
sbk-nfrw-rꜤ
The beauty of Sobek and Ra
ra-I4-nfr-w
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 609 (III 5)
Traces of neferu visible on early drawings.
Birth name variant
Neferu Sobek Ra
nfrw-sbk-rꜤ
The beauty of Sobek and Ra
ra-F35-F35-F35-I3-G7
Turin King List 7.2
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:E5
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) VI:2
Birth name variant
Neferu Sobek
nfrw-sbk
The beauty of Sobek
N5-I4-F35-F35-F35-H8:X1
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 140e-f
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:E4
Birth name variant
Neferu Sobek
nfrw-sbk
The beauty of Sobek
I5-O200*O200-F35-F35-F35
Petrie, A history of Egypt, I, p. 197 (Cylinder seal EA16581)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:E3
Birth name variant
Neferu Sobek
nfrw-sbk
The beauty of Sobek
F35-F35-F35-I3
Rock inscription at second cataract, year 3
Reisner, "Excavations in Egypt and Ethiopia 1922-1925". BMFA 23, 21
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 86-87, 8:E1

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xii, 7 Σκεμιoφρις Scemiophris 4 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 341–343
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 86–87
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 60
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 455–457
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