Pepi II in hieroglyphs

The fifth pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty, a.k.a. Pepy II, Neferkare

Pepi II became king when he was six years old, and according to Manetho, he went on to rule for 94 years. That he did rule for some sixty odd years can be corroborated, but anything more than that is uncertain. His long reign is thought to have led to stagnation of the administration of the kingdom, and was perhaps a key ingredient of the fall of the Old Kingdom. Manetho trancribed Pepi into Greek as Phiops.

Precedessor
Nemtiemsaf I

Successor
Nemtiemsaf II

Reign of Pepi II
AE Chronology2216–2153
v. Beckerath2254–2194
Shaw2278–2184
Dodson2212–2118
Allen2246–2152
Malek2236–2143
Franke2245–2180
Redford2300–2206
Turin King List90+x years
Manetho (Africanus)94 years
Highest attestationYear 62

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Netjer khau  The Dual King Nefer ka Ra*  Son of Ra Pepi

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Netjer khau
nṯr.i-ẖꜤw
Divine of appearances
nTr-xa-w
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I, 7
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 64-65, 5:H
Horus name variant
Netjeri khau nefer ka Ra
nṯr.i-ẖꜤw nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Divine of appearances, the perfect one of the ka of Ra
nTr-xa-w-ra-nfr-kA
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 116a

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Netjeri khau
nṯr.i-ẖꜤw
The divine one of the appearances of the Two Ladies
nTr-xa-w
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I, 7
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 116a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 64-65, 5:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Bik nebu sekhem
bik-nbw-sẖm
The powerful golden falcon
sxm*G5:nbw
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I, 7
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 116a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 64-65, 5:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Nefer ka Ra*
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
The perfect one of the ka of Ra
ra-nfr-kA
Abydos Canon no. 38
Saqqara Canon no. 23

Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 113g
Throne name variant
Name missing
Turin King List 5.5
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) IV:5

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Pepi
pipi
Pepi
p:p-i-i
Passim
Sethe, Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums, I
Birth name variant
Pepi
zꜢ-rꜤ-pipi
Son of Ra, Pepi
zA&ra-p:p-i-i
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , I, 114
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 64-65, 5:E2
Birth name variant
Pepi
pipi
p-p-i-i
Uncertain reading but Prisse show p-i, with traces of what could be another p-i.
Prisse d'Avennes, Monuments Égyptiens..., Plate I

Throne + Birth name

Combination of Throne- and Birth-name cartouches
probably only used for a special occasion.

Throne + Birth name
Pepi nefer ka Ra
pipi nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Pepi, perfect is the soul of Ra
p:p-i-i-ra-nfr-kA
Petrie, Koptos, plate V (7)

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus vi, 4 Φιωψ Phiops 94 years
Eusebius v, 4 Φιωψ Phiops 94 years
Eratosthenes 20 Aπαππους Apappus 100

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 169–176
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 64–65
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 43
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 295–297
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