Psamtik I in hieroglyphs

The second pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, a.k.a. Psammetichus I

Precedessor
Necho I

Successor
Necho II

Reign of Psamtik I
664–610
Dodson664–610
Manetho (Africanus)54 years
Manetho (Eusebius)45 years
Manetho (Jerome)44 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Aa ib  The Dual King Wah ib Ra  Son of Ra Psemtek

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Aa ib
ꜤꜢ-ib
Strong-minded
aA:ib*Z1
Caminos, The Nitocris Adoption Stela, JEA 50 (1964): pl. 8:6
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 270b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:H1
Horus name variant A
Aa ib
ꜤꜢ-ib
Strong-minded
aA:ib
Chassinat, Textes provenant du Sérapéum de Memphis, RecTrav 22 (1900): 166
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:H2
Horus name variant B
Aa ib
ꜤꜢ-ib
Strong-minded
aA:ib:a
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 270b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:H3
Horus name variant C
Aa ib
ꜤꜢ-ib
Strong-minded
aA:a:ib
Breccia, Les fouilles dans le Sérapéum d’Alexandrie en 1905-1906, ASAE 8 (1907): 64
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:H4

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Neb a
nb-Ꜥ
Possessor of a (strong) arm
nb:a:Z1
Caminos, The Nitocris Adoption Stela, JEA 50 (1964): pl. 9:13
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:N1
Nebty name variant A
Neb a
nb-Ꜥ
Possessor of a (strong) arm
nb:Z1:a
Breccia, Les fouilles dans le Sérapéum d’Alexandrie en 1905-1906, ASAE 8 (1907): 64
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 270b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:N2
Nebty name variant B
Neb a
nb-Ꜥ
Possessor of a (strong) arm
nb:a
Brugsch, Thesaurus inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum (1884), IV, 738
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:N3

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Qenu
ḳnw
The brave one
q:n-nw&w-D40
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 270b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:G1
Golden Horus name variant A
Qenu
ḳnw
The brave one
q*nw:n
Breccia, Les fouilles dans le Sérapéum d’Alexandrie en 1905-1906, ASAE 8 (1907): 64
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:G2
Golden Horus name variant B
Qenu
ḳnw
The brave one
q:n:D40
Brugsch, Thesaurus inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum (1884), IV, 738
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:G3

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Wah ib Ra
wꜢḥ-ib-rꜤ
The enduring one is the (very) mind of Ra
ra-wAH-ib
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:T1
Throne name variant
null
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:T2

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Psemtek
psmtk
Psamtik
p:z-m-T:k
Brugsch, Thesaurus inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum (1884), IV, 738
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:E1
Birth name variant A
Psemtek
psmtk
Psamtik
p-s-m-T:k
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 270b
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:E2
Birth name variant B
Psemtek
psmtk
Psamtik
p-z:M-T:k
Kofoed-Petersen, Glyptotheque Ny Carlsberg 3, (1950), pl. 106
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 214-215, 1:E3

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxvi, 4 Ψαμμητιχος Psammetichus 54 years
Eusebius xxvi, 5 Ψαμμητιχος Psammetichus 45 years
Jerome Psammeticus 44 years
Herodotus 151.2 Ψαμμητιχος Psammetichus 54 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 20 (1915): 66–68
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 214–215
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 165
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