Psusennes I in hieroglyphs

The third pharaoh of the Twenty-first Dynasty,

Precedessor
Amenemnesut

Successor
Amenemope

Reign of Psusennes I
AE Chronology1051–1006
v. Beckerath1044–994
Shaw1039–991
Dodson1034–981
Redford1055–1004
Manetho (Africanus)46 years
Manetho (Eusebius)41 years
Manetho (Jerome)41 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht em ded Amun, user fau, sekha em Waset
 The Dual King Aa kheper Ra, setep en Amun  Son of Ra Pa seba kha en niut mery Amun

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht em ded Amun, user fau, sekha em Waset
kꜢ-nḫt m-Ꜣwi-imn wsr-fꜢw sḫꜤi-m-wꜢst
The strong bull through the gift of Amun, rich in splendor, who has been made to appear in Thebes
E2:D40-m-D37:D37-i-mn:n-wsr-f:F40:W-s-xa:a-m-R19-t:O49
Montet, La Nécropole royale de Tanis (1951), Vol. 2, 96-97, fig. 38, pl. 55
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:H

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Wer menu em Ipet-sut, neb pehty, waf tawy, wah nesyt mi Ra em pet
wr-mnw-m-ipt-swt nb-pḥti-wꜤf-tꜢwi-wꜢḥ-nsit-mi-rꜤ-m-pt
Great of monuments in Karnak, the possessor of might who has subdued the Two Lands, the one enduring of kingship like Ra in heaven
wr:r-mn:n:nw*nw*nw-m-i-p:t-st-3:O49-nb:F9*F9-G45:f-N17:N17:N21*N21-wAH-t-sw-ra:m-mi-p*t:N1
Montet, La Nécropole royale de Tanis (1951), Vol. 2, 135-136, fig. 51, pl. 107
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Sema tau, der pedjut 9, itj em sekhemef em tau nebu
smꜢ-tꜢw dr-pḏt iṯi-sḫm.f-m-tꜢw-nbw
Who has united lands, repelled the Nine Bows, and seized with his strong arm all lands
zmA-L1:3-d:r:D40-pD:t*3:3*3-iTi:D40-m-m:f-sxm-m-N17:N17:N17:N21*N21-nb:W*3
Montet, La Nécropole royale de Tanis (1951), Vol. 2, 96-97, fig. 38, pl. 55
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Aa kheper Ra, setep en Amun
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-rꜤ stp.n-imn
The great one is a manifestation of Ra, chosen by Amun
ra:aA-xpr-C12-stp:n
Mariette, Monuments divers recueillis en Égypte et en Nubie (1872), II, pl. 102c
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:T2
Throne name variant
Aa kheper Ra, setep en Amun
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-rꜤ stp.n-imn
The great one is a manifestation of Ra, chosen by Amun
ra-O29v-xpr-i-mn:n:stp:N17
Montet, La Nécropole royale de Tanis (1951), Vol. 2, 96-97, fig. 38, pl. 55
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:T1
Throne name variant
Aa kheper Ra, mery Amun
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-rꜤ mri-imn
The great one is a manifestation of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-O29v-xpr-i-mn:n:U7
Montet, La Nécropole royale de Tanis (1951), Vol. 2, 170, fig. 63
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:T3
Throne name variant
Aa kheper Ra, setep en Maat
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-rꜤ stp.n-mꜢꜤt
The great one is a manifestation of Ra, chosen by Maat
ra:aA-xpr-C10A-stp:n
Squatting statue (Cairo Museum CG 626)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:T4

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Pa seba kha en niut mery Amun
pꜢ-sbꜢ-ḫꜢi-n-niwt mri-imn
The star who has appeared in Niut (Thebes), beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:U7-G40-N14*xa:n:O49
Daressy, Contribution à l'étude de la XXIe dynastie égyptienne, Revue Archeologique 1896/01 (SER3,T28): 76
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:E1
Birth name variant
Pa seba kha en niut
pꜢ-sbꜢ-ḫꜤi-n-niwt
The star who has appeared in Niut (Thebes)
G40-N14:xa-n:O49*t
Montet, La Nécropole royale de Tanis (1951), Vol. 2, 96-97, fig. 38, pl. 55
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:E2
Birth name variant
Hem netjer tepy en Amun, Pa seba kha en niut
ḥm-nṯr tpi-n-imn pꜢ-sbꜢ-ḫꜤi-n-niwt
High Priest of Amun, The star who has appeared in Niut (Thebes)
nTr-U36-D1*p:n-i-mn:n-G40-N14*xa:n:O49
Montet, La Nécropole royale de Tanis (1951), Vol. 2, 170, fig. 63
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 3:E3

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxi, 2 Ψουσεννης Psusennes 46 years
Eusebius xxi, 2 Ψουσεννης Psusennes 41 years
Jerome Psusennes 41 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 289–291
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 178–179
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 139–140
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