Ramesses I in hieroglyphs

The first pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Ramses I

Ramesses I was already an old man when he was chosen by Horemheb to succeed him upon his death. The new dynasty he founded was only just starting up when Ramesses I died, and his son Seti I ascended the throne, ensuring that the dynasty lived on. Seti might well have been a reason Ramesses was chosen as succession from father-to-son had been non-existent since the death of Akhenaten

Ramesses I's almost ephemeral reign meant that he didn't get to build much, but that was soon remedied by his son, who became a very prolific builder, who in turn was outdone his son, Ramesses II.

Precedessor
Horemheb

Successor
Seti I

Reign of Ramesses I
AE Chronology1292–1291
v. Beckerath1292–1290
Shaw1295–1294
Dodson1298–1296
Arnold1307–1306
Malek1295–1294
Grimal1295–1294
Redford1315–1314
Manetho (Josephus)1y 4m
Highest attestationYear 2

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht wadj nesyt  The Dual King Men pehty Ra  Son of Ra Ramessu

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht wadj nesyt
kꜢ-nḫt wꜢḏ-nsyt
The strong bull, he who rejuvenates the royalty
E1:D40-wAD-sw-t-i-i-Y1:Z2
Brussels E.2171
Gardiner, Peet, Cerny The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate LXVIII (244)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 1:8
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:H
Horus name variant
Ka nakht wadj nesyt
kꜢ-nḫt wꜢḏ-nsyt
The strong bull, he who rejuvenates the royalty
E1:D40-wAD-sw-t-i-i-A40B-Z3
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , VII, 130 (4)
Louvre C57 stele
Champollion, Monuments de l'Égypte et de la Nubie , I, plate 1 (2)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 2:9

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Kha em nisut mi Itemu
ḫꜤi-m-nsw-mi-itm
He who appears as a king, like Atum
xa:a:Y1-m&t-sw-A44-mi-i-t:U15:Aa15
Brussels E.2171
Gardiner, Peet, Cerny The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate LXVIII (244)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 1:8
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 2:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Semen Maat khet tawy
smn-mꜢꜤt-ḫt-tꜢwi
Who established Maat throughout the Two Lands
s-mn:n-U32-Aa11v-xt:x*t:D54-N21:N21
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , VII, 130 (4)
Louvre C57 stele
Champollion, Monuments de l'Égypte et de la Nubie , I, plate 1 (2)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 2:9
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 2:G2

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra:mn-F9
Copenhagen National Museum obelisk fragment No. 468
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 5:3
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra-F9-mn
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 3:16; 4:2
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:T4
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra-mn:n-F9
Louvre C57 stele
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 2:6
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 123a
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra:mn-F9-F9
Brussels E.2171
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 1:12
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:T1
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra:mn-S3-F9
Porter & Moss, Topographical Bibliography , VII, 130 (4)
Louvre C57 stele
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 2:10
Rosellini, Monumenti Storici, IV.1 plate XLV (1)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 2:T2
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra-F9-F9-mn
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 4:9
ASAE , 4, 182
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra:mn-F9:t*t
Abydos Canon no. 75

Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra-F9-t*t:mn
Saqqara Canon no. 3

Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra
ra-mn:n-F9-F9
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 3:10
Louvre E 7690 (pedestal of a statue)
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra, heqa Maat
mn-pḥti-rꜤ ḥḳꜢ-mꜢꜤt
Eternal is the Strength of Ra, ruler of Maat
ra:mn-HqA-F9-H6
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 5:4
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:T5
Throne name variant
Men pehty Ra, tit Ra
mn-pḥti-rꜤ tit-rꜤ
Eternal is the Strength of Ra, the image of Ra
ra:mn-F9-F9-ra:D17:t
Brussels E.2171
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 1:5
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:T6

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Ramessu
rꜤ-msi-sw
Ra has fashioned him
ra-ms-s-sw-w
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 1:15
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 123a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:E1
Birth name variant
Ramessu
rꜤ-msi-sw
Ra has fashioned him
ra-ms-s-z
Brussels E.2171
Gardiner, Peet, Cerny The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate LXVIII (244)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 1:6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:E3
Birth name variant
Ramessu
rꜤ-msi-sw
Ra has fashioned him
ra-ms-s-s
Brussels E.2171
Gardiner, Peet, Cerny The Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate LXVIII (244)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 1:12
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:E2
Birth name variant
Ramessu heqa Maat
rꜤ-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-mꜢꜤt
Ramesses, ruler of Maat
ra-ms-s-s-HqA-q-H6
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , I, 3:8
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 148-149, 1:E4

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Josephus 97 Pαμεσσης Ramesses 1 year, 4 months

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 2–9
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 148–149
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 109
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 305–307
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