Ramesses III in hieroglyphs

The second pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty, a.k.a. Rameses III, Ramses III

The 32 year reign of Ramesses III was marked by political, economic and military problems as foreign invaders flowed into the kingdom. He was murdered in the Harem conspiracy instigated by his second queen, Tiye, who wanted her son Pentawer to succeed Ramesses III instead of the designated prince. The plan failed, and is known to us thanks to the Judicial Papyrus of Turin.

Precedessor
Setnakht

Successor
Ramesses IV

Reign of Ramesses III
AE Chronology1187–1157
v. Beckerath1183–1152
Shaw1184–1153
Dodson1185–1153
Arnold1194–1163
Malek1184–1153
Grimal1186–1154
Redford1198–1166
Highest attestationYear 32

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht aa nesyt  The Dual King User Maat Ra, mery Amun  Son of Ra Ramessu heqa Iunu

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht aa nesyt
kꜢ-nḫt ꜤꜢ-nsyt
The great bull, great of kingship
E1:D40-aA-sw-i-i-t:Z2
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H1
Horus name variant A
Ka nakht mai pehty nakht a neb khepesh haq setetiu
kꜢ-nḫt mꜢi-pḥti nḫt-Ꜥ nb-ḫpš ẖꜢḳ-sṯtiw
The strong bull and powerful lion, strong-armed, the Lord of strength who has captured the Asiatics
E1:D40-1:l-F9:F9-t*y:D40-n:xt:x*t-D40:Z1:a-nb:F24:D40-M16-q:Z9-D40-S22:t*t-T14-A1*A40-Z2:N25
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (1)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H2
Horus name variant B
Ka nakht menekh menu, sehotep neb-er-djer em nayef akhut
kꜢ-nḫt mnḫ-mnw sḥtp-mb-r-ḏr-m-nꜢ(y).f-Ꜣḫwt
The strong bull, splendid of monuments, who has satisfied the Lord of All with his benefactions
E1:D40-mn:n:x-mnx-Y1v-mn:n:nw*nw*nw-A53-Z3-s-Htp:t*p-nb:r-M36:r-A40-m-n:Ai*i:Z2:f-Aa1&Ax&t:Z2
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 391 (b)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H3
Horus name variant C
Ka nakht sewesekh Kemet, user khepesh, nakht a sema tjehenu
kꜢ-nḫt swsḫ-kmt wsr-ḫpš nḫt-Ꜥ smꜢ-ṯḥnw
The strong bull who has enlarged Egypt, the one powerful of sword and strong of arm who has slaughtered the Libyans
E1:D40-s-w-z:x-D56-D54-I6:t*O49-wsr-T16A\-2-n:xt:x*t-D40:1:a-z:G3-Aa15:T30-D40:T-H-n:nw*W-T14*A1:3
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 27 (1)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 20:14
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H4
Horus name variant D
Ka nakht-a dem henuty, men ib wer pehty her bawy en qenu
kꜢ-nḫt-Ꜥ dm-ḥnwti mn-ib wr-pḥti-ḥr-bꜢwi-n-ḳn
The strong-armed bull who has sharpened (his) two horns, decisive and great of strength on the battlefield of bravery
E1-n:M3:x*t-D40:Z1:a-d:Aa15:T30-H-U8:n:W*2-F16:F16-mn:U32*Y1v*(ib:1)-wr:r-F9:t:Z4-D40:D2*Z1-E10&1-W:Z4:N21*1-N-q:n:D40
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 392 (c)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H5
Horus name variant E
Ka pehty, sekhem khepesh, nakht-a, neb neru em tau khasut Fenkhu Temehu
kꜤ-pḥti sḫm-hpš nḫt-Ꜥ nb-nrw-m-tꜢw-ḫꜢswt-fnḫw-ṯmḥw
The powerful bull, potent of sword, strong-armed, lord of dread in the lowlands and the highlands of the Fenkhu-Asiatics and the Temehu-Libyans
E1-F9*F9:t*Z4:D40-sxm-M:D40-xpS:n:M3:x*t-D40:Z1:a-nb:n:r-i-nr:D40-M:N17:N17:N17-N25:t*Z2-f:x:V12:D40-ti-m-H-T14-A1
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, II, plate 79 (1)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 49:14
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H6
Horus name variant F
Sekhem pehty, hed hefnu, dekh na pehu su, demedj (kher) tjebwyef
sḫm-pḥti hd-ḥfnw dḫ-nꜢ-pḥw-sw-dmḏ-(ẖr)-ṯbwi.f
Powerful of strength, who has attacked hundreds of thousands, overthrown those who have attacked him, and gathered (them) (under) his sandals
sxm-Aa15:D40-F9-t:y-D40:O4A:d-a:D40-I8*I8*I8:Z2-d:x-A15:D40:n-G4&F22-D54:z-S23:d-S33*S33:f
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 33 (10)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 30:14
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H7
Horus name variant G
Asha menu
ꜤšꜢ-mnw
With many monuments
I1:t:Z2-mn:n:nw*nw*nw
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 393 (g)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H8
Horus name variant H
Neb habu-sed mi Tatenen
nb-ḥꜢbu-sd-mi-tꜢṯnn
Possessor of Sed festivals like Tatenen
nb:O23F-Z3-mi-C18C
The Epigraphic Survey, The Excavation of Medinet Habu, III (OIP 54), plate 35 B
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H9
Horus name variant I
An her serekh mi sa Aset
Ꜥn-ḥr-srḫ-mi-zꜢ-Ꜣst
Beautiful on the throne like the son of Isis
a:n:D6-D2:Z1-s-r:x:O33-mi-H8:Z1-st-t:H8
The Epigraphic Survey, The Excavation of Medinet Habu, III (OIP 54), plate 35 C
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H11
Horus name variant J
Bity wer menu, wer biaut, meh Ipet-sut her renef
biti-wr-mnw wr-biꜢwt mḥ-iptswt-hr-rn.f
The reigning king, great of monuments and wonders, who has filled Karnak with his renown
S3-i-A20-mn:n:nw*nw*nw-wr:r-U16:t*Z2-V22:Y1-i-p:t-st-3:O49-Aa15:mn:nw*nw*nw-D2:Z1-r:n:V10:f
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, III, plate 32 A
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 164-165, 2:H14
Horus name variant K
Saa khau mi akhty webenef, ankh Rekhyet
sꜤꜢ-ḫꜤw-mi-Ꜣḫti wbn.f-Ꜥnḫ-rḫyt
Who has magnified his appearances like the One of the Two Horizons when he rises, the life of the Rekhyet people
z:aA:a:Y1-xa:3-mi-N27:t-y:pr-W*b:n-N8:f-anx:t-G24A:3
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, III, plate 32 A
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:H15
Horus name variant L
An en nesu mi Itemu, mer tuef abtuef mi hem en Ra
Ꜥn-m-nsw-mi-itm mri.tw.f-Ꜣb.tw.f-mi-ḥm-n-rꜤ
Beautiful as king like Atum, he is loved and wished for like the majesty of Ra
a:n:D6-m-sw-t-A42B-mi-A304G-U7\:r:W*t-A2-t&w:f-R15-b-W-A53-t&w:f-mi-i-U36-Z1-A42-S3-ra:Z1-A40
The Epigraphic Survey, Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak, II, plate 122 (a)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:H17

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Wer habu-sed mi Tatenen
wr-ḥꜤbw-sd-mi-tꜢ-ṯnn
Great of Sed festivals like Tatenen
wr:r-O23F-Z3-mi-C18C
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:N1a
Nebty name variant A
Wer habu-sed mi Tatenen
wr-ḥꜤbw-sd-mi-tꜢṯnn
Great of Sed festivals like Tatenen
wr:r-O23F-Z3-mi-i-N16:T:n:n-C18C
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (bottom)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:N1b
Nebty name variant B
User pehty mi itef Mentju, seksek pedjut 9, der em tasen
wsr-pḥti-mi-it.f-mnṯw sksk-pḏt-dr-m-tꜢ.sn
Powerful of strength like his father Montu, who has annihilated the Nine Bows and repelled (them) in their (own) countries
wsr-s-r:D40-F9:t*y:D40-mi-i-i-t:f-A40*1:f-mn:n:T-w-A40-s-V116-s-V116-T30:D40-pD:t*3:3*3-d:r:D40-Aa15:N17:Z1*N21-z:n:3
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (1)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 37:10-11
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:N2
Nebty name variant C
Ir Maat en pesdjet, seheb rauper Ra neb
iri-mꜢꜤt-n-psḏt sḥꜢb-rꜢw-pr-mi-kꜢw-rꜤ-nb
Who has accomplished Maat for the Ennead and made (their) temples festive daily
ir:t:Aa11:n-N10:t-nTr-Z3-s*H*b:W3-r:2:pr:2-Z3:Z1-O49:O49-Z3-Aa15:kA*1:Z2-ra*Z1:nb
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 391 (b)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 314:8-9
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:N3

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
User renput mi Itemu
wsr-rnpwt-mi-itm
Rich in years like Atum
wsr-rnp*rnp*rnp-mi-A45
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:G1a
Golden Horus name variant A
An tjel em mesu netjeru netjeriut qab aabetsen
Ꜥn-ṯl-m-mswt-nṯrw-nṯrwt ḳꜢb-ꜤꜢbt.sn
Beautiful and mighty, as the (very) progeny of gods and goddesses, who has doubled their offerings
a:n:D6-U33-n:Z2:r*Z1:D40-m-ms-nTr-Z3-nTr-t:r:2-i-i-t:H8-I12:3-q&b-F47:Y1-M19-W3:ra-z:n:Z2
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, VI, plate 391 (b)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 314:9
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:G3
Golden Horus name variant B
Netjeri em peref em khet suhet iqeret sebqet en Hor-akhty
nṯri-m-pri.f-m-ẖt swḥt-iḳrt-sbḳt-n-ḥrꜢḫti
Divine as soon as he emerged from the womb, the excellent and precious egg of Harakhty
nTr-t:r:y-Y1:Aa15:pr*(r:D54)-f:Aa15:X-t:Z1:F51B-s-w-H-t:H8-i-q:r:t-Y1:s*b*(q:t)*A53-G5&N19
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 46 (1-2)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 37:11
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:G2
Golden Horus name variant C
Qen neb khepesh ir tash er meref emsa kheftiuf
ḳnw nb-ḫpšwi iri-tꜢš-r-mri.f-m-sꜢ-ḫftiw.f
The brave one, possessor of a strong arm, who has made (his) border as he wished, behind his enemies
q:n:D40-nb:xpS:xpS-y:W-ir:t:N37-Z9*N21:r-U7:r:f-Aa15:Aa18*1-x:f-A14A:f
The Epigraphic Survey, Medinet Habu, I, plate 27 (2)
Kitchen, Ramesside Inscriptions , V, 20:15–16
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:G4

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
User Maat Ra, mery Amun
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ mri-imn
Strong is the Maat of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-wsr-mAat-N36-i-mn:n
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:T1
Throne name variant
User Maat Ra, mery Amun
wsr-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ mri-imn
Strong is the Maat of Ra, beloved of Amun
ra-wsr-C10A-i-mn:n:N36
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:T2

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Ramessu heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses, ruler of Heliopolis
C2-ms-s-s-HqA-iwn
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:E1
Birth name variant A
Ramessu heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses, ruler of Heliopolis
C2-ms-z:z-HqA-q-iwn
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 166-167, 2:E2
Birth name variant B
Ramessu heqa Iunu
rꜤ-msi-sw ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Ramesses, ruler of Heliopolis
C2-ms-z:z-HqA-iwn
Passim

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Herodotus 121.1 Pαμψινιτον Rhampsinitus
Diodorus 1.62.5 Pεμφις Rhemphis

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 156–178
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 164–167
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 127–130
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 312–316
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