Sahura in hieroglyphs

The second pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty, a.k.a. Sahure

Sahura was the second ruler of the fifth dynasty, succeeding his father Userkaf. His name can be found on all three inscribed New Kingdom king lists. The name is lost on the Turin king list, but can be inferred to have been present on 4.18 where it preserves a 12 year reign.

Precedessor
Userkaf

Successor
Neferirkara I Kakai

Reign of Sahura
AE Chronology2428–2416
v. Beckerath2471–2458
Shaw2487–2475
Dodson2385–2373
Allen2458–2446
Malek2447–2435
Redford2506–2492
Turin King List12 years
Manetho (Africanus)13 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King

Horus Neb khau  The Dual King Sahu Ra

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Neb khau
nb-ḫꜤw
Possessor of appearances
nb:xa-w
Cerny, Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate 5
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 56–57, 2:H
Horus name variant
Neb khau Sahu Ra
nb-ḫꜤw sꜢḥ-w-rꜤ
Possessor of appearances, Ra has endowed me
nb:xa-w-ra-sAH-w
Borchardt, Das grabdenkmal des Sahu-Re, I, 45–46

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Neb khau
nb-ḫꜤw
Possessor of appearances
nb:xa-w
Borchardt, Das grabdenkmal des Sahu-Re, I, 45–46
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 56–57, 2:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Bikwy nebu
bikwi-nbw
The golden double falcon
G7*G7:nbw
Borchardt, Das grabdenkmal des Sahu-Re, I, 45–46
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 56–57, 2:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Sahu Ra
sꜢḥw-rꜤ
Ra has endowed me
ra-sAH-w
Abydos Canon no. 27
Saqqara Canon no. 33
Karnak Canon no. 3
Mariette, Abydos, I, plate 43 (27)
Meyer, Ägyptische Chronologie, plate 1 (33)
Borchardt, Das grabdenkmal des Sahu-Re, I, 45–46
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 56–57, 2:E
Throne name variant
Name missing
Turin King List 4.18
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) III:18

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus v, 2 Σεφρης Sephres 13 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 109–113
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 56–57
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 38
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 343–345
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