Shabaka in hieroglyphs

The second pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty, a.k.a. Sabacon

Recent archaeological evidence now favours a Shebitko-Shabaka succession against the Shabaka-Shebitko tradition.

Precedessor
Piye

Successor
Shebitko

Reign of Shabaka
AE Chronology722–707
v. Beckerath713–698
Shaw716–702
Dodson721–707
Arnold716–702
Grimal716–702
Redford712–698
Manetho (Africanus)8 years
Manetho (Eusebius)12 years
Manetho (Jerome)12 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Sebaq tawy  The Dual King Nefer ka Ra  Son of Ra Sha ba ka

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Sebaq tawy
sbḳ-tꜢwi
The one who has blessed the Two Lands
s-b-q:N17:N17
Beckerath, The Nile Level Records at Karnak and their Importance, JARCE 5: 52:30
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:H

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Sebaq tawy
sbḳ-tꜢwi
The one who has blessed the Two Lands
s-b-q:N17:N17
Beckerath, The Nile Level Records at Karnak and their Importance, JARCE 5: 52:30
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Sebaq tawy
sbḳ-tꜢwi
The one who has blessed the Two Lands
s-b-q:N17:N17
Beckerath, The Nile Level Records at Karnak and their Importance, JARCE 5: 52:30
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:G

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Nefer ka Ra
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
The perfect one of the ka of Ra
ra-nfr-kA
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:T1
Throne name variant A
Nefer ka Ra
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ
The perfect one of the ka of Ra
ra-nfr-E1
Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 10 (1923): pl. 43
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:T2
Throne name variant B
Nefer ka Ra, mery Amun
nfr-kꜢ-rꜤ mri-imn
The perfect one of the ka of Ra, beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:U7-ra-nfr-kA
Keimer, Perles de collier en soufre fondu, ASAE 39 (1939): 206
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:T3

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Sha ba ka
šꜢbꜢkꜢ
M8-E10-kA
Passim
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:E1
Birth name variant A
Sha ba ka
šꜢbꜢkꜢ
N37-E10-kA
Limestone block-statue of Iti (British Museum, EA24429)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:E2
Birth name variant B
Sha ba ka mery Amun
šꜢbꜢkꜢ mri-imn
Shabaka, beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:U7-M8A-E10-kA
Revue d'Egyptologie 8: pl. 5
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 206-207, 4:E3

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxv, 1 Σαβακων Sabacon 8 years
Eusebius xxv, 1 Σαβακων Sabacon 12 years
Jerome Sabacon Aethiops 12 years
Herodotus 137 Σαβακων Sabacon 50 years
Diodorus 1.65.2 Σαβακων Sabaco

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 20 (1915): 12–24
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 206–207
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 162
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