Shepseskaf in hieroglyphs

The sixth pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty,

According to the archaeological record. Shepseskaf was the last pharaoh of the fourth dynasty. The Turin papyrus and the Saqqara king list is damaged where the last rulers of the dynasty would be placed, and to make matters worse, they detail a different number of pharaohs between Khafra and Userkaf, the first ruler of the fifth dynasty.
According to Africanus, Sebercheres was the seventh of eight kings in Manetho's fourth dynasty.

Precedessor
Menkaura

Successor
Baufra

Reign of Shepseskaf
AE Chronology2441–2436
v. Beckerath2486–2479
Shaw2503–2498
Dodson2396–2392
Allen2472–2467
Arnold2454–2450
Malek2460–2456
Redford2523–2519
Turin King List4 years
Manetho (Africanus)7 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King

Horus Shepses khet  The Dual King Shepses kaf

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Shepses khet
šps-ẖt
The noble one of the (divine) Corporation
Sps-Xt
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , I 160
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54–55, 7:H

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Shepses
šps
The noble one (by means) of the Two Ladies
Sps
Hassan, Excavations at Giza, III, 176-180
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54–55, 7:N

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Shepses kaf
šps-s-kꜢ-f
His ka is noble
Sps-s-s-kA:f
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , I, 166
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, II, 41a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54–55, 7:E1
Throne name variant
Shepses kaf*
šps-s-kꜢ-f
His soul is noble
A51-z:z-kA:f
Abydos Canon no. 25

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54–55, 7:E3
Throne name variant
Nesut bity Shepses kaf
nswt-biti šps-s-kꜢ.f
The Dual King, his ka is noble
sw:t-bit:t-Sps-s-s-kA:f
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , I 160
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 54–55, 7:E2
Throne name variant
Name missing
Turin King List 4.15
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959) III:15

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus iv, 7 Σεβερχερης Sebercheres 7 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 101–103
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 54–55
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 37
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 425–426
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