Smendes I in hieroglyphs

The first pharaoh of the Twenty-first Dynasty,

Precedessor
Ramesses XI

Successor
Amenemnesut

Reign of Smendes I
AE Chronology1076–1052
v. Beckerath1070–1044
Shaw1069–1043
Dodson1064–1038
Redford1081–1055
Manetho26 years

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht mery Ra seuser Amun khepeshef er seqa Maat
 The Dual King Hedj kheper Ra, setep en Ra  Son of Ra Nisu ba-neb-djed mery Amun

Horus name

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht mery Ra seuser Amun khepeshef er seqa Maat
kꜢ-nḫt-mri-rꜤ swsr-imn ḫpš.f-r-sḳꜢi-mꜢꜤt
Strong bull, beloved of Ra, whose arm Amun has strengthened in order to offer up Maat
E2:D40-ra:Z1-mr-s-wsr-s-r:D40-i-mn:n-xpS:f:r-s-q-A28-U5:a-t:H8
RecTrav 10, 135 (1)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 1:H

Nebty name

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Sekhem pehty hui reqiuef behatuef hepet em..
sḫm-pḥti ḥwi-rḳw.f-bhꜢtw.f- ḥtp-m-..
Powerful of might, who has struck down his opponents who flee from him, who has embraced by means of...
sxm-F9:F9-H-A24-r:q-i-i-A14A-Z2:f-b-h-A-D54:t-w-f:H*(p:t)-D199-m
RecTrav 10, 135 (1)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 1:N

Golden Horus name

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
..khesef denden
..ḫsf-dndn
... who drove away anger
U35-d:n:d:n-F6:D40
RecTrav 10, 135 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 1:G

Throne name

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Hedj kheper Ra, setep en Ra
ḥḏ-ḫpr-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
The dazzling one is the (very) manifestation of Ra
ra-S1-xpr-stp&n&ra
RecTrav 10, 135 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 1:T

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Nisu ba-neb-djed mery Amun
ni-sw-bꜢ-nb-ḏdt mri-imn
He belongs to the ram, the lord of Mendes, beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:U7-F20:z-E10-Dd-Dd-t:O49
RecTrav 10, 135
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 1:E3
Birth name variant
Nisu ba-n-djed mery Amun
ni-sw-bꜢ-n-ḏdt mri-imn
He belongs to the ram, the lord of Mendes, beloved of Amun
i-mn:n:U7-ns&E10-nb:Dd*Dd
PSBA 14, 248
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 178-179, 1:E2

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xxi, 1 Σμενδης Smendes 26 years
Eusebius xxi, 1 Σμενδις Smendis 26 years
Jerome Semendis 26 years

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 19 (1913): 287–288
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 178–179
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 138
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