Thutmose I in hieroglyphs

The third pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Tuthmosis I, Thutmosis I

Thutmose I, the third king of the Eighteenth Dynasty, was placed as the fifth by Africanus under the name Misaphris, while Eusebius placed Miphres as the fourth king. The discrepancy of the sources of Manetho is quite unreliable for the entire 18th dynasty

The lineage of the parents of Thutmose I are unknown. His father could have been Amenhotep I, or his mother mught have been a member of kings family, but there is no real evidence for either.

The name of the god Thoth is an ancient Greek transcription of the original name Djehuty. Thutmose is a compromise between the Greek transcription Thutmosis and the modern Djehutimes.

Precedessor
Amenhotep I

Successor
Thutmose II

Reign of Thutmose I
AE Chronology1493–1483
v. Beckerath1504–1492
Shaw1504–1492
Dodson1503–1491
Arnold1504–1492
Malek1504–1492
Grimal1506–1493
Redford1525–1516
Manetho (Josephus)12y 9m
Manetho (Africanus)13 years
Manetho (Eusebius)12 years
Manetho (Jerome)12 years
Highest attestationYear 8/9

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht mery Maat  The Dual King Aa kheper ka Ra  Son of Ra Djehutimes

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt-mri-mꜢꜤt
Strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-C10A-mr
Karnak Obelisk D - east and west faces
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 93 (15)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
Strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1:D40-mAat-mr-i-i
Rock inscription at Tombos
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 87e
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:H3
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
Strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1-n:xt:x*t-D40-mAat-mr
Coronation decree of Tuthmosis I
Erman, Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 29, 116-119
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:H2
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Maat
kꜢ-nḫt mri-mꜢꜤt
Strong bull, beloved of Maat
E1-A24-C10A-mr
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 5a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:H2
Horus name variant
Ka nakht en Ra
kꜢ-nḫt-n-rꜤ
Strong bull of Ra
E1:D40-n:ra*Z1-A40
Karnak Obelisk D - south face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:H4
Horus name variant
Mery Ra kha em hedjet
mri-rꜤ ḫꜤi-m-ḥḏt
Beloved of Ra, who has appeared in the White Crown
ra:U7-xa-m-S1
Karnak Obelisk D - north face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:H5

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Kha em nesret aa pehty
ḫꜤi-m-nsrt ꜤꜢ-pḥti
He who appears with the uraeus, great of stength
m&xa-n:z:r-t:aA:F9*F9
Karnak Obelisk D - east face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Nebty name variant
Kha em nesret aa pehty
ḫꜤi-m-nsrt ꜤꜢ-pḥti
He who appears with the uraeus, great of stength
xa:a-m-n:ns&r:t-I13-D40:F9*F9
Year 2 commemorative stele of Nubian campaign victory
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 82
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 5a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:N1
Nebty name variant
Du Atum kha khau
dwꜢ-itm ḫꜤi-ḫꜤw
Who worships Atum, radiant of appearances
t:U15-A51D-N14:xa-A30-xa:w
Karnak Obelisk D - north face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:N3
Nebty name variant
Ity tau nebu
iṯi-tꜢw-nb(w)
Who has seized all lands
V15-N17:N17:N17:nb
Karnak Obelisk D - south face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 132-133, 3:N2

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Aa pehty user khepesh wadj renput em hutaat Maat
ꜤꜢ-pḥti wsr-ḫpš wꜢḏ-rnpwt-m-ḥwt-ꜤꜢt-mꜢꜤt
Great of strength and strong-armed, enduring of years in the temple of Maat
aA:F9*F9-wsr-s-xpS-wAD-rnp-rnp-rnp-m-O8-mAat-t:pr
Karnak Obelisk D - north face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:G3
Golden Horus name variant
Hui pedjut 9
ḥwi-pḏt-9
Who has struck down the Nine Bows
H-A24-pD:Z3:Z3*Z3
Karnak Obelisk D - south face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:G2
Golden Horus name variant
Nefer renput seankh ibu
nfr-rnpwt sꜤnḫ-ibw
He whose years are perfect/beautiful, and makes hearts live
nfr-rnp-rnp-rnp-s-anx-ib:ib:ib
Karnak Obelisks D - east face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 93 (17)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:G1

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Aa kheper ka Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Great is the manifestation of the soul of Ra
ra-O29v-xpr-kA
Tombos stela of Nubian campaign victory
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 82
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 5a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:T1
Throne name variant
Aa kheper ka Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Great is the manifestation of the soul of Ra
ra:aA-xpr-kA
Abydos Canon no. 68

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:T1
Throne name variant
Aa kheper ka Ra, setep en Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Great is the manifestation of the soul of Ra, chosen of Ra
ra:aA-xpr-kA-stp&ra:n
Karnak Obelisk D - east face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:T3
Throne name variant
Aa kheper ka Ra, iri en Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ iri.n-rꜤ
Great is the manifestation of the soul of Ra, who Ra has made
ra:aA-xpr-kA:ra-ir:n
Karnak Obelisk D - north face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:T2
Throne name variant
Aa kheper ka Ra, tit Amun
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ iti-imn
Great is the manifestation of the soul of Ra, the image of Amun
ra:aA-xpr-kA-i-mn:n:D17
Karnak Obelisk D - west face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:T4
Throne name variant
Aa kheper ka Ra, mery en Ra
ꜤꜢ-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ mri.n-rꜤ
Great is the manifestation of the soul of Ra, beloved of Ra
ra:aA-xpr-kA:ra-U7:n
Karnak Obelisk D - south face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:T5

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Djehutimes
ḏḥwti-msi(w)
Thoth is born
G26-ms-s
Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 29, pp. 116-119
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 5a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:E1
Birth name variant
Djehutimes kha neferu
ḏḥwti-ms ḫꜤi-nfrw
Thoth is born, who has appeared perfectly
G26-xa-ms-nfr-Z2:z
Karnak Obelisk D - east face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:E3
Birth name variant
Djehutimes kha mi Ra
ḏḥwti-ms ḫꜤi-mi-rꜤ
Thoth is born, who has appeared like Ra
G26-xa:ra-ms*mi:z
Karnak Obelisk D - north+south face
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 6
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 134-135, 3:E2

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 5 Μισαφρις Misaphris 13 years
Eusebius xviii, 4 Μιφρης Miphres 12 years
Jerome Mephres 12 years
Josephus 95 Μηφρης Mephres 12 years, 9 months

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 212–227
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 132–135
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 96–97
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 463–467
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