Thutmose III in hieroglyphs

The sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, a.k.a. Tuthmosis III, Thutmosis III

The name of the god Thoth is an ancient Greek transcription of the original name Djehuty. Thutmose is a modern compromise between the Greek transcription Thutmosis and Djehutimes. His 54-year reign includes the first 22 years as co-regent with Hatshepsut, where neither had any obvious seniority over the other, and Thutmose III was head of the army, while she was the de facto ruler. After her death, his military genius created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen.
His name in Manetho's king list is Mephramuthosis, which is a shortened Greek transcription of his throne and birth names.

Precedessor
Hatshepsut

Successor
Amenhotep II

Reign of Thutmose III
AE Chronology1479–1425
v. Beckerath1479–1425
Shaw1479–1425
Dodson1479–1424
Arnold1479–1425
Malek1479–1425
Grimal1479–1425
Redford1504–1452
Manetho (Josephus)25y 10m
Manetho (Africanus)26 years
Manetho (Eusebius)26 years
Manetho (Jerome)26 years
Highest attestationYear 54

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

The Dual King
The Son of Ra

Horus Ka nakht kha em Waset  The Dual King Men kheper Ra  Son of Ra Djehutimes

Horus names

Horus name

The oldest form of the name of a pharaoh, a falcon representing Horus is perched on the palace facade.

Horus name
Ka nakht kha em Waset
kꜢ-nḫt ḫꜤ-m-wꜢst
The strong bull arising in Thebes
E1:D40-xa:m-R19-t:O49
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 55a
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:H1
Horus name variant
Ka nakht kha em Waset
kꜢ-nḫt ḫꜤ-m-wꜢst
The strong bull arising in Thebes
E1:D40-xa:m-R19
Lateran, London, Istanbul, New York obelisks
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 586 (1); 590 (1); 593 (2+4); 584 (1)
Horus name variant
Ka nakht kha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḫꜤ-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull arising in Maat
E1:D40-xa-C10*m
Lateran obelisk, western face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 585 (4)
Theodosius obelisk, Istanbul, western face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 587 (4)
Horus name variant
Ka nakht kha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḫꜤi-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, who has appeared in Truth
E1:D40-xa-m-C10A
London obelisk, eastern face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 591 (4)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:H8
Horus name variant
Ka nakht kha em Maat
kꜢ-nḫt ḫꜤ-m-mꜢꜤt
The strong bull, who has appeared in Truth
E1:D40-H-a:Y1-m-C10A
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 33c
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:H10
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-C2A-mr
Theodosius obelisk, Istanbul, northern face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 587 (3)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 60
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:H6
Horus name variant
Ka nakht mery Ra
kꜢ-nḫt mri-rꜤ
The strong bull, beloved of Ra
E1:D40-ra:Z1-mr
Lateran obelisk, northern face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 585 (3)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:H7
Horus name variant
Mery Ra qa hedjet
mri-rꜤ ḳꜢi-ḥḏt
Beloved of Ra, whose White Crown is high
ra:Z1-A41-q-S2-mr-i-i
Lateran obelisk, eastern face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 584 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:H3
Horus name variant
Qa hedjet mery Ra
ḳꜢi-ḥḏt mri-rꜤ
Whose White Crown is high, beloved of Ra
S1-q-C2A-mr
New York obelisk, northern face
Champollion, Monuments de l'Egypte, IV, plate 444
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 593 (3)
Horus name variant
Qa hedjet mery Ra
ḳꜢi-ḥḏt mri-rꜤ
Whose White Crown is high, beloved of Ra
HDt-q-C2A-mr-i-i
London obelisk, western face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 591 (1)
Horus name variant
Qa hedjet mery Ra
ḳꜢi-ḥḏt mri-rꜤ
Whose White Crown is high, beloved of Ra
HDt-q-A28-C2A-mr
Theodosius obelisk, Istanbul, eastern face
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 586 (2)
Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien, III, 60

Nebty names

Two ladies hieroglyphs

The “Two Ladies”, the goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Nebty name
Wah nesyt
wꜢḥ-nsit
Enduring of kingship
wAH-H-sw-i-i-t
Before 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 193
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:N1
Nebty name variant
Wah nesyt mi Ra em pet
wꜢḥ-nsyt-mi-rꜤ-m-pt
Enduring of kingship like Ra in heaven
wAH-t-sw-ra:Z1-mi-m-p*t:N1
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 833
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:N2
Nebty name variant
Shesep ankh en itemu, kheper em Khepri, hotep bau Iunu her maat.ef
šsp-Ꜥnḫ-n-itm ḫpr-m-ḫpri ḥtpw-bꜢw-iwnw-ḥr-mꜢꜤt.f
The living image of Atum who appeared as Khepri, with whose offerings the souls of Heliopolis are satisfied
E154-anx-n:x-n:t:U15-A40-xpr:r-m-xpr:r-i-A40-Htp:t*p-G30-iwn-nw:O49-D2:Z1-Aa11:a:t:f
Name especially for the Sed festival
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 600
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:N5
Nebty name variant
Aa shefyt em tau nebu
ꜤꜢ-šfit-m-tꜢw-nb(w)
Great of majesty in all lands
aA-F8:t-m-N17:N17:N17:nb
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 585 (3)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:N4
Nebty name variant
Sekha Maat mery tawy
sḫꜤi-mꜢꜤt mri-tꜢwi
Who has made Maat appear, beloved of the Two Lands
s-xa-C10A-mr-i-i-N17:N17
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 586 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:N3

Golden Horus names

Golden Horus name

Horus perched on Gold, which was associated with eternity, but its meaning is disputed.

Golden Horus name
Djoser khau
ḏsr-ḫꜤw
Sacred of appearances
Dsr-r:Y1-xa-w-Y1:Z2
Before 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 193
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:G1
Golden Horus name variant
Djoser khau sekhem pehty
ḏsr-ḫꜤw sḫm-pḥti
Sacred of appearances and powerful of might
Dsr:xa-sxm-F9:F9
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 833
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:G2
Golden Horus name variant
Heru her nakhtu
hrw-ḥr-nḫtw
Pleased with (his) victories
h:r-D2:D40
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 584 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:G5
Golden Horus name variant
Heru her nakhtu hui heqau khasut pehu su
hrw-ḥr-nḫtwḥwi-ḥḳꜢw-ḫꜢswt-pḥw-sw
Pleased with (his) victories, he who struck down the rulers of the foreign lands who approached him
h:r-D2:Z1-D40-H-A24-HqA-HqA-HqA-N25:t*Z2-F22:Z2-sw-w
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 591 (1)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:G4
Golden Horus name variant
Sekhem pehty djoser khau
sḫm-pḥti ḏsr-ḫꜤw
Powerful of might and sacred of appearances
sxm-F9:F9-Dsr-xa:a-Z3
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 811
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:G3
Golden Horus name variant
Aa khepesh hui pedjut 9
ꜤꜢ-ḫpš ḥwi-pḏt
He of great of strength who has struck down the Nine Bows
aA:F24\-H-A24-pD:Z2-Z2:Z2
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 585 (3)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:G6
Golden Horus name variant
Sar Maat sehotep Ra
sꜤr-mꜢꜤt sḥtp-rꜤ
Who has elevated Maat and satisfied Ra
s-a:r-N31-C10A-s-Htp:t*p-C2
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 600
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:G7

Throne names

Prenomen or throne name

Announced at the coronation and always written in a cartouche. The “official” name of the pharaoh. Also known as the Prenomen.

Throne name
Men kheper Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra
ra:mn-xpr
Abydos Canon no. 70
Saqqara Canon no. 8

Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T1
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra
ra-mn:n-xpr
Before 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 1384
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T2
Throne name variant
Men kheper ka Ra
mn-ḫpr-kꜢ-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of the soul of Ra
ra-mn-xpr-kA
Before 21st year
Cerny, Inscriptions of Sinai, I, plate 61 (180)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T3
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, iwa Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ iwꜤ-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, the heir of Ra
ra:mn-xpr-ra:F44
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 601
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T5
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, iry en Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ iri,n-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, whom Ra made
ra:mn-xpr-ra-ir:n
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 587 (4)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T6
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, mery en Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ mri.n-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, beloved of Ra
ra:mn-xpr-ra-U7:n
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 584 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T7
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, setep en Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ stp.n-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, chosen by Ra
ra:mn-xpr-stp&n&ra
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 811
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T8
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, saa en Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ sꜤꜢ.n-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, whom Ra made great
ra:mn-xpr-z:aA:n
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 587 (3)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T9
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, neb khepesh
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ nb-ḫpš
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, possessor of a strong arm
ra:mn-xpr-nb:F24\
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 601
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T10
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, nakht khepesh
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ nḫt-ḫpš
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, the mighty-armed one
ra:mn-xpr-D40:F24\
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 601
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:T11
Throne name variant
Men kheper Ra, tit Ra
mn-ḫpr-rꜤ tit-rꜤ
Lasting is the Manifestation of Ra, the (very) image of Ra
ra:mn-xpr-ra:D17
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 586 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:T12

Birth names

Nomen or birth name

Personal name given at birth. Also known as the Nomen .

Birth name
Djehutimes
ḏḥwti-msi(w)
Thoth is born
G26-ms-s
Before 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 193
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:E1
Birth name variant
Djehutimes
ḏhwti-msi(w)
Thoth is born
G26-t:y-ms-s
Before 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 1384
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 136-137, 6:E2
Birth name variant
Djehutimes
ḏḥwti-msi(w)
Thoth is born
C3-ms
After 21st year
CG 61014
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E4
Birth name variant
Djehutimes
ḏḥwti-msi(w)
Thoth is born
E35-ms
After 21st year
CG 61014
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E5
Birth name variant
Djehutimes nefer kheper
ḏḥwti-msi(w) nfr-ḫpr
Thoth is born, beautiful of form
G26-ms:z-nfr-xpr
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 811
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E6
Birth name variant
Djehutimes nefer kheperu
ḏḥwti-msi(w) nfr-ḫprw
Thoth is born, beautiful of forms
G26-ms-nfr-xpr:Z2
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 145
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E7
Birth name variant
Djehutimes sema kheper
ḏḥwti-msi(w) zmꜢ-ḫpr
Thoth is born, united of manifestations
G26-ms:z-zmA-xpr
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 161
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E8
Birth name variant
Djehutimes heqa Maat
ḏḥwti-msi(w) ḥḳꜢ-mꜢꜤt
Thoth is born, ruler of Maat
G26-ms:z-HqA-Sw
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 591 (3)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E9
Birth name variant
Djehutimes heqa Iunu
ḏḥwti-msi(w) ḥḳꜢ-iwnw
Thoth is born, ruler of Heliopolis
G26-ms:z-HqA-iwn
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 592 (4)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E10
Birth name variant
Djehutimes heqa netjer
ḏḥwti-msi(w) ḥḳꜢ-nṯri
Thoth is born, divine ruler
G26-ms:z-HqA-q-nTr
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 601
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E11
Birth name variant
Djehutimes heqa Waset
ḏḥwti-msi(w) ḥḳꜢ-wꜢst
Thoth is born, ruler of Thebes
G26-ms-HqA-R19
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 601
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E12
Birth name variant
Djehutimes sa Atum en khetef mesen enef Nebet-Iunet
ḏḥwti-msi(w) zꜤ-itm-n-ẖt.f msi.n-n.f-nbt-iwnt
The bodily son of Atum, whom Nebet-Iunet bore for him
t:x-C53A-zA-n:X:t:f-G31-s-n:n:f-nb:t*O49-G26-ms-s
After 21st year
Urkunden des Ägyptische Alterthums , IV, 593 (2)
Beckerath, “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, 2nd ed. MÄS 49 (1999). 138-139, 6:E13

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTranscriptionReign
Africanus xviii, 6 Μισφραγμουθωσις Misphragmuthosis 26 years
Eusebius xviii, 5 Μισφραγμουθωσις Misphragmuthosis 26 years
Jerome Mispharmuthosis 26 years
Josephus 96 Μηφραμουθωσις Mephramuthosis 25 years, 10 months

Bibliography

  • Gauthier, H. Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 18 (1912): 253–275
  • Beckerath, J. “Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen”, Second edition, MÄS 49 (1999) : 136–139
  • Leprohon, R. J. The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013): 98–100
  • Baker. D. D. The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I (London, 2008): 470–474
PLEASE NOTE
There might be errors on this page.
Make sure you use the correct source!
Yes, you would be surprised...