Alexander the Great invaded Egypt and was greeted as a liberator by ending the Persian occupation. When Alexander died in 323 BC, one of his generals, Ptolemy, was appointed to govern Egypt. He nominally served under the heirs of Alexander, but was already the king in all but title. In 305 BC he finally ended all pretense and took the title of Pharaoh, founding the Ptolemaic dynasty.
|#||Pharaoh||Throne name||Also known as||Reign*|
|1||Alexander the Great||Setepenra meryamun||332–323|
|2||Philip III Arrhidaeus||Setepenkara meryamun||323–317|
|3||Alexander IV Aegus||Haaibra setepenamun||317–309|
OK – Old Kingdom
MK – Middle Kingdom
NK – New Kingdom
SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Thebes – The Southern capital
Memphis – The Northern capital
Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.
Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.
Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.
Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name
Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script
Hyksos – Greek form of
Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.