Eratosthenes of Cyrene

According to Syncellus, Apollodoros of Athens recorded a list of 38 Theban kings taken from Eratosthenes.
Apollodoros and Eratosthenes are considered pseudonymous, meaning that this list was written by someone else using their names to lend authority to it. Some of the names listed can be found in Manetho and Herodotus, suggesting there might be a common, but corrupted, source behind the list, as some of the names have no similarity whatsoever with other known lists. As a chronological list it is useless.

This list is included here only as a curiosity. In all likelyhood, Eratosthenes was not the author of this list.

The chronicler Apollodoros recorded another dynasty of 38 Egyptian kings, the Thebans, as they are called, who ruled for 1076 years. This dynasty commenced in AM 2900, and came to an end in AM 3045. The knowledge of these kings, he says, Eratosthenes received from Egyptian records and registers and at royal request he translated them into the Greek language, as follows (Adler & Tuffin: 128)

The reign of the thirty-eight so-called Theban kings in Egypt, whose names Eratosthenes took from the sacred scribes in Diospolis and deciphered from Egyptian into the Greek language, ceased at this point. Commencing in AM 2900, 124 years after the confusion of tongues, it ceased to exist in this year AM 3975. As to the tradition preserved by Apollodoros about the other fifty-three Theban kings who succeeded them, we deem it unnecessary to set forth their names here, since we have nothing to gain in citing them. For the names of their predecessors are also of no value.

Syncellus
No.Ancient GreekTransliterationPharaohRemarks
1 Μηνης Menes Narmer Menes, the Theban of This, whose name means "eternal". He reigned for 62 years.
2 Aθωθης Athothes Aha The second king of the Thebans was Athothes, the son of Menes, 59 years. His name means "born from Hermes".
3 Aθωθης Athothes Djer The third king of the Thebans in Egypt had the same name Athothes, 32 years.
4 Μιαβιης Miabies Adjib The fourth king of the Thebans was Miabaes, son of Athothes, 19 years. His name means "friend of comrades".
5 Πεμφως Pemphos Semerkhet The fifth king of the Thebans was Pemphos, son of Athothes. His name is "descendant of Heracles". He reigned for 18 years.
6 Μομχειρι Momkheiri ? The sixth king of the Thebans in Egypt was Momkheiri the Memphite, reigning for 79 years. His name means "exceedingly large limbs of the man"; he was therefore irresistible.
7 Στοιχος Stoikhos Nebra The seventh king of the Thebans in Egypt was his son, Stoikhos; his name means "Ares the unfeeling". He reigned 6 years.
8 Γοσορμιης Gosormies ? The eight king of the Thebans in Egypt was Gosormies, his name is "all-demanding". He reigned 30 years
9 Μαρης Mares ? The ninth king of Thebes in Egypt was his son Mares; his name is "gift of the Sun". He reigned 26 years.
10 Aνωυφις Anouphis ? The tenth king of the Thebans in Egypt was Anoyphis, his name is "revelling". He reigned 20 years.
11 Σίριος Sirios ? The eleventh king of the Thebans in Egypt was Sirios; his name is "son of the pupil of the eye", but according to others, "secure from enchantments". He reigned 18 years.
12 Χνουβος η Γνευρος Khnoubos e Gneuros ? The twelfth king of the Thebans in Egypt was Khnoubos Gneuros, his name is "Khryses, son of Khryses". He reigned for 12 years.
13 Ραυωσις Rhauosis Radjedef The thirteenth king of the Thebans in Egypt was Rhauosis; his name is "arch-ruler". He reigned for 13 years.
14 Βιυρης Biures Baufra The fourteenth king of the Thebans in Egypt was Biyres. He reigned for 10 years.
15 Σαωφις Saophis Khufu The fifteenth king of the Thebans in Egypt was Saophis, "reveller", or, according others, "money-getter". He reigned for 29 years.
16 Σαωφις β Saophis II Khafra The sixteenth king of the Thebans was Saophis II. He reigned for 27 years.
17 Μοσχερως Moskheres Menkaura The seventeenth king of the Thebans was Moskheres Heliodotos; (Lit. Gift of Helios). He reigned for 31 years.
18 Μοσθης Mosthes Teti The eighteenth king of the Thebans was Mosthes. He reigned for 33 years.
19 Παμμης Aρχουδης Pammes Arkhondes Pepi I The nineteenth king of Thebes was Pammes Arkhondes. He reigned for 35 years.
20 Aπαππους Apappous Pepi II The twentieth king of the Thebans was Apappous the Most Great; it is said that he ruled for 100 years but for one hour.
21 Εχεσκοσοκαρας Ekheskosokaras Nemtiemsaf II The twenty-first king of the Thebans was Ekheskosokaras, for 1 year.
22 Νιτωκρις Nitokris Netjerikara The twenty-second ruler of the Thebans was Nitokris, a wife i place of her husband; her name is "Athena the Victorious". She reigned for 6 years.
23 Μυρταιος Aμμωνοδοτος Myrtaios Ammonodotos ? The twenty-third king of the Thebans was Myrtaios Ammonodotos (Lit. Gift of Ammon), for 22 years.
24 Oυωσιμαρης Ouosimares ? The twenty-fourth king of the Thebans was Ouosimares 'the mighty'; his name is "Sun" Ruled for 12 years.
25 Σεθινιλος Sethinilos ? The twenty-fifth king of the Thebans was Sethinilos; his name is "having increased his inherited power", for 8 years.
26 Σεμφρουκρατης Semphroukrates ? The twenty-sixth king of the Thebans was Semphroukrates; his name is "Heracles Harpokrates". Reigned 18 years.
27 Χουθηρ Ταυρος Khouther Tauros ? The twenty-seventh king of the Thebans was Khouther Tauros, for 7 years.
28 Μευρης Φιλοσκορος Meures Philoskoros ? The twenty-eight king of the Thebans was Meures Philoskoros, for 12 years.
29 Χωμαεφαιστος Khomaephaestos ? The twenty-ninth king of the Thebans was Khomaephtha, "the world", Philephaistos", for 11 years.
30 Σοικουνιος Soikounios ? The thirtieth king of the Thebans was Soikounios, for 60 years.
31 Πετεαθυρης Peteathyres ? The thirty-first king of the Thebans was Peteathyres, for 16 years.
32 Σταμμενεμης α Stammenemes I Amenemhat I The thirty-second king of the Thebans was Stammenemes, for 26 years.
33 Σταμμενεμης β Stammenemes II Amenemhat II The thirty-third king of the Thebans was Stammenemes II, for 23 years.
34 Σιστοσιχερμης Sistosikhermes Senusret III The thirty-fourth king of the Thebans was Sistosikhermes Herkles 'the mighty', for 55 years.
35 Μαρης Mares Amenemhat III The thirty-fifth king of the Thebans was Mares, for 43 years.
36 Σιφθας Siphthas ? The thirty-sixth king of the Thebans was Siphthas, also known as Hermes, 'son of Hephaistos', for 5 years.
37 Φρουορω Phruoro ? The thirty-seventh king of the Thebans was Phrouoro or "the Nile," for 5 years.
38 Aμουθαρταιος Amouthartaios Amyrtaeus The thirty-eight king of the Thebans was Amourthartaios, for 63 years.

Bibliography

  • Dindorf 1829 Corpus Scriptorum Historiae Byzantinae
  • Meyer, E. 1904 Aegyptische Chronologie, 99-103, (Berlin)
  • Müller, C. 1848 Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ii, 512-616
  • Waddell, W. G. 1940 Manetho, Appendix II, 212-225, (Cambridge, Mass.)
  • . 1984. Georgius Syncellus: Ecloga Chronographica. 103, 109, 115-16, 118-19, 125, 143, 172. (Leipzig)
  • and . 2002. The Chronography of George Synkellos. 128, 135–36, 143–44, 147–48, 156–57, 178–79, 211–12. (Oxford)
End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – German for prototype or template, a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Dynasty – a sequence of rulers from the same family, from Greek dynasteia (δυναστεια)

OK – Old Kingdom

MK – Middle Kingdom

NK – New Kingdom

SIP – Second Intermediate Period

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