The First Intermediate Period

The First Intermediate Period began when Pepi II died. It was marked by disunity and cultural decline. The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders fought for power.

Dynasty VII

There is no evidence of a seventh dynasty.
Africanus wrote that 70 kings ruled for 70 days,
while Eusebius wrote that 5 kings of ruled for 75 days.

Dynasty VIII

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Netjerikara Netjerikare, Nitocris
2 Menkara Menkare
3 Neferkara II Neferkare II
4 Neferkara Neby Neferkare Neby
5 Djedkara Shemai Djedkare Shemay
6 Neferkara Khendu Neferkare Khendu
7 Merenhor
8 Neferkamin I Seneferka
9 Nikara Nikare
10 Neferkara Tereru Neferkare Tereru
11 Neferkahor
12 Neferkara Pepiseneb Neferkare Pepiseneb
13 Neferkamin Anu
14 Qakara Ibi
15 Neferkaura Neferkaure
16 Neferkauhor
17 Neferirkara II Neferirkare II

Dynasty IX

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Meribra Khety I Meribre Khety I
2 Neferkara III Neferkare III
3 Wahkara Khety II Wahkare Khety II
4 Senen
5 Neferkara Khety III Neferkare Khety I

Dynasty X

# Pharaoh Alternate names Reign (BC)
1 Nebkaura Khety IV Nebkaure Khety IV, Khety V between 2160 and 2130
2 Merikara Merykare c. 2075–2040
Sekhemkara I Sekhemkare I
Wadjkara Wadjkare

End of page
Ancient historians
Terms & information

OK – Old Kingdom
Dynasties 3-6

MK – Middle Kingdom
Dynasties 11-12

NK – New Kingdom
Dynasties 18-20

SIP – Second Intermediate Period
Dynasties 13-17

Thebes – The Southern capital

Memphis – The Northern capital

Epitome – Manetho’s original Aegyptiaca was lost in antiquity, and in the following centuries, it was replaced by Epitomes (summaries) by rivalling advocates of Jewish, Egyptian, and Greek history that saw each side trying to establish the truth according to their point of view.

Vorlage – From the German for prototype or template, a vorlage is a prior version of a manuscript, in this case an earlier version of the canon.

Recto and verso – Recto is the front side and verso is the back side of a written or printed text.

Cartouche – oval band enclosing a pharaohs name

Hieratic – cursive form of hieroglyphic script

Hyksos – Greek form of ḥḳꜢ-ḫꜢswt or “rulers of foreign lands,” referring to peoples who migrated and controlled parts Egypt during the SIP.

Mortuary Temple – where the gods and the king who built the temple were worshipped.

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