Amenemhat III

Also known as: Amenemhet III Dynasty XII

The reign of Amenemhat III is regarded as the Golden Age of the Middle Kingdom, and he had the Great Canal built to link the Fayum with the Nile. His name in Manetho's king list is Lakhares or Lamaris, while Herodotus transcribed his name as Moerios, which Diodorus wrote as Moiris. His name is present on the Abydos and Saqqara king lists, and unfortunately the Turin Canon does not preserve his name, only a reign of 40+x years in location where his name would have been found.

Reign of Amenemhat III
AE Chronology1818–1773
Shaw1855–1808
Dodson1842–1794
Malek1859–1814
Arnold1844–1797
Grimal1842–1797
Franke1818–1773
Redford1843–1797
Turin Canon40+x years
Manetho8 years
Highest attestationYear 46

 

The Royal Titulary

From the hieroglyphic records

Horus name
Horus name of Amenemhat III: Aa bau
Aa bau
ꜤꜢ-bꜢw
Great of might
aA:G30
Stela of Sehotepibra (CG 20538 recto)
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 140g
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:H1
Horus name variant
Horus name of Amenemhat III: Aa bau
Aa bau
O29v:G30
Funerary stela CG 20536
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 138g
Nebty name
Nebty name of Amenemhat III: Ity iwat tawy
Ity iwat tawy
iṯi-iwꜢt-tꜢwi
He who inherited the Two Lands
V15:F44-N17:N17
Funerary stela CG 20536
Nebty name variant
Nebty name of Amenemhat III: Itj iwat tawy
Itj iwat tawy
iṯi-iwꜢt-tꜢwi
He who inherited the Two Lands
iTi:t-E9:a-iwa:t:N17:N17
ASAE, 3, 206-8
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:N2
Nebty name variant
Nebty name of Amenemhat III: Ity iwat her
Ity iwat her
iṯi-iwꜢt-ḥr
He who inherited the Two Lands
iTi:t-E9:a-t:Z2:N31
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 138g
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:N3
Golden Horus name
Golden Horus name of Amenemhat III: Wah ankh
Wah ankh
wꜤḥ-Ꜥnḫ
Enduring of life
G5-wAH*anx:nbw
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 138g
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:G3
Golden Horus name variant
Golden Horus name of Amenemhat III: Wah ankh
Wah ankh
wꜢḥ-Ꜥnḫ
Enduring of life
wAH*anx*G5:nbw
ASAE, 3, 206-8
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:G2
Throne name
Throne name of Amenemhat III: Ni Maat Ra
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-mAat
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 138g
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:T1
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat III: Ni Maat Ra
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-H6
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 139d
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:T4
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat III: Ni Maat Ra
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra-C10A-n
Saqqara king list 20
. Ramesside Inscriptions, III, 481 (20)
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat III: Ni Maat Ra
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-U4-a:t
Abydos king list 64
. Ramesside Inscriptions, I, 179 (64)
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat III: Ni Maat Ra
Ni Maat Ra
ni-mꜢꜤt-rꜤ
He who belongs to the Maat of Ra
ra:n-mA-Aa11:t
Pyramidion in Cairo Museum
ASAE, 3,207 (JE 35122)
Throne name variant
Throne name of Amenemhat III: Name missing
Name missing
Royal Canon of Turin 6.25
Gardiner, The Royal Canon of Turin (1959), V:25
Birth name
Birth name of Amenemhat III: Amenemhat
Amenemhat
imn-m-ḥꜢt
Amun is in front
i-mn:n-m-HAt:t
, Denkmäler aus Ägypten und Äthiopien (), II, 138g
, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (), 86-87, 6:E

The sources of antiquity

From the writings of the historians and scholars of antiquity

AuthorGreekTransliterationTranscriptionReign
Africanus xii, 4 Λαχαρης Lakhares Lachares 8 years
Eusebius xii, 4 Λαμαρις Lamaris Lamaris 8 years
Herodotus 101.1 Μοιριος Moerius Moerius
Diodorus 1.51.5 Μοιρις Moiris Moeris
Eratosthenes 35 Μαρης Mares Mares 43 years

Bibliography


Handbuch der Ägyptischen Königsnamen, MÄS 49 (1999): 86–87
The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC (London, 2008), 26–29
Le livre des rois d'Égypte. MIFAO 17 (1907): 319–337
The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary (Atlanta, 2013), 59

 

End of page
The Royal titulary

The full titulary was announced at the coronation, when a pharaoh officially became king.

Horus
Horus name
The oldest form of a pharaoh's name, often enclosed in a serekh, a sort of "heraldic crest" representing a palace facade.

Nebty
Nebty name
The "Two Ladies", the heraldic goddesses Nekhbet and Wadjet, representing Upper and Lower Egypt respectively.

Golden Horus
Golden Horus name
Gold was strongly associated with eternity, but the meaning of this title is disputed.

Prenomen
Throne name
(prenomen) Announced at the coronation, and written in a cartouche.

Nomen
Personal name
(nomen) The name given at birth, also written in a cartouche.

Kinglists
Ancient historians

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